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APS Social Studies

The Earth

Mercury Venus Earth Mars the four planets closest to the sun
inner planets solid, rocky crusts
outer planets (except Pluto) large diameter, less dense, gaseous stuctures, distant from the sun
The asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Asteroid small irregularly shaped, planetlike objects found mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter in a region called the Asteroid Belt
Comets made of icy dust particles and frozen gases,look like bright balls with long feathery tails
Meteroids pieces of space debris, chunks of rock and iron
hydrosphere oceans, lakes, rivers and oter bodies of water. 70% of our planet's surface
lithosphere 30% of earth's surface is land including continents and islands, also including ocean basins, or the land beneath the oceans.Also known as the earth's crust
atmosphere a layer of gases estending about 6,000 miles above the earth's surface. The atmosphere is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and small amounts of argon and and other gases.
biosphere all people, animals, and plants live on the earth's surface, close to the earth's surface, or in te atmosphere
landforms the natural features of the earth's surface. The four major landforms are mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains. Others include valleys, canyons, and basins. Landforms often contain rivers, lakes, and streams.
continental shelf The part of the continent that extends underwater.
Mount Everest the highest point on earth, 29,035 feet above sea level
Dead Sea shoreline the lowest dry land point at 1,349 feet below sea level
Mariana Trench a long narrow underwater canyon 35,827 feet deep
inner core super-hot solid, about 4,000 miles below the surface of the earth. Scientists believe that it is made up of iron and nickel under enormous pressure
outer core liquid that surrounds the inner core about 1,400 miles thick. It is a band of melted iron and nickel, it begins about 1,800 miles below the surface of the earth. Temperatures reach 8,500 degrees farenheit.
mantle next to the outer core it is a thick layer of hot, dense rock consisting of silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, oxygen, and other elements. This mixture continually rises, cools, sinks, warms up, and r ises again, releasing 80% of the heat generated from
Crust a rocky shell forming the earth;s surface. Relatively thin layer of rock ranges from 2 miles thick under oceans to about 75 miles thick under mountains. It is broken into more than a dozen great slabs of rock called plates
continental drift The theory that the continents were once joined and then slowly drifted apart into smaller continents
magma molten rock pushed up from the mantle
plate tectonics all of the activities which created many of the earth's physical features
subduction a sea plate collides with a continental plate. The heavier sea plate dives beneath the lighter continental plate. The sea plate becomes molten lava
accretion pieces of the earth's crust come together slowly as the sea plate slides under the continental plate
Spreading sea plates pull apart allowing magma to well up
Folds moving plates sometimes squeeze the surface until it buckles
faults plates grind or slide past each other, creating cracks in the earth's crust
Earthquake sudden violent movements of plates along a fault line
Ring of fire the most earthquake-prone area on the planet. A zone of earthquake and volcanic activity surrounding the pacific ocean. Marks the boundary where the plates that cradle the Pacific meet the plates that hold the continents surrounding the Pacific
Weathering the process that breaks down rocks on the earth's surface into smaller pieces.
Erosion the wearing away of the earth's surface by wind, glaciers, and moving water
Wind Erosion the movement of dust, sand, and soil from one place to another.
loess a fertile, yellow-gray soil deposited by the wind
Moraines large pile of rocks and debris left behind from receding glaciers
Water Erosion The most significant cause of erosion from fast moving water-rain, rivers, streams, and oceans
The Water Cycle regular movement of water from the oceans to the air to the ground and finally back to the oceans
Evaporation changing of liquid water into vapor or gas
Condensation when warm air cools it cannot retain all of its water vapor, so the excess water vapor changes into liquid water
Precipitation When clouds gather more water than they can hold they release the moisture, which falls to the earth as rain, snow, or sleet
Oceans 97% of the earth's water that circles the planet divided into 4 oceans
Sea, Gulf, and Bays bodies of salt water smaller than oceans
Desalination turning salt water into drinking water
Freshwater only 3% of the earth's total water supply, and most is not available for human consumption. More thatn 2% is frozen in glaciers and ice caps. .5% is found beneath the erath's surface
Groundwater freshwater that lies beneath the earth's surface, comes from rain and melted snow that filter through the soil and from water that seeps into the ground from lakes and rivers.
aquifer an underground porous rock layer often saturated with water in the form of a stream
Created by: tbostwick