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Music Hist and Lit 1

Studying for the final-When/What (Describe) Category

What is a Bull Lyre? Distinctively Sumerian lyre, soundbox features a bull's head. Players holds lyre to play, supported by a strap.
What is an aulos? A pipe typically played in pairs, each pipe had fingerholes and a mouthpiece and reed. Dionysian instrument.
What is a lyre? Usually had 7 strings, strummed with a pick. An appolonian instrument.
What is a Kithara? A large lyre, used especially for processions and sacred ceremonies and in theater. Played while standing.
What is Musica Enchiradis? A ninth century teatise on music. (Music Handbook). Introduced a system for notating chant.
What is a trope? An addition to an existing chant, that Consists of either: words and melody, a melisma, or words only (set to an existing melisma or other melody).
What is a sequence? The restatement of a pattern (melodic OR harmonic), on successive or different pitch levels.
What is a Cantiga? A medieval monophonic song in Spanish or Portugese.
What is a Estampie? A medieval instrumental dance that features a series of sections, each played twice with two different endings. Ouvert and Clos.
What is Florid Organum? 12th Century style of 2 voice polyphony. Lower voice sustains long notes, and upper voice sings note groups of varying lengths above each note of the lower voice.
What are the Rhythmic Modes? System of 6 durational patterns used in polyphony of the late 12, and 13th centuries. (long short, short long, long short short, etc...)
What is Discant Clausula? "Singing apart" 12th century style of polyphony, where upper voice(s) have 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice(s).
What is Polyphonic Conductus? Settings for 2-4 voices of the same types of texts as monophonic/strophic conductus.
Name three significances of the early motet. 1) Based on Discant Clausula 2) Different texts in each voice 3) Often had secular topic (not sacred)
What is Rota? A perpetual canon or round at the unison. Most famous is "Sumer Is Icumen In"
What was the Babylonian Captivity? From 1309 to 1377, the Popes resided in Avignon under the control of the French King. This was succeeded by the Great Schism (1378-1417).
What was the Great Schism? From 1378-1417, when people started to believe that science was separate from the church, beginning of Separation of church and state.
What was the Black Death? A combination of the bubonic and pneumonic plague the wiped out a third of the population across Europe from about 1347-1350. Further increased the economic slump and inproductivity in Europe.
What is an Isorhythm? ("Equal rhythm") tenor is left out in segments of identical rhythm.
What are the Formes Fixes? "Fixed Forms" 1) Virelai 2) Ballade 3) Rondeau
What is Musica Ficta? Musicians in the 14-16th centuries would raise of lower notes by a semitone to avoid the tri-tone interval in a melody to make it sound smooth and pretty.
What is Just Intonation? A tuning system that produced perfectly tuned thirds and sixths. Developed by Bartolome Ramis de Pareia.
What is Pythagorean Intonation? A tuning system used throughout the Medieval ages, where only the octave, fifth, and fourth were perfectly in tune. And everything else was dissonant to the ear.
What was Countenance Angloise? (English guise or quality) Consisted especially in the frequent use of harmonic thirds and sixths, often in parallel motion.
What is Fauxbourdon? A technique, inspired by English faburden where only the cantus and tenor were written out, moving mostly in parallel sixths, with each phrase ending on an octave. The 3rd voice sang in exact parallel a fourth below the cantus (unwritten though). Du Fay
Created by: musicgeek424