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Drug Class Def

What the drugs do

QuestionAnswer
ACE Inhibitors: Prevent the synthesis of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor; used to treat HTN and heart failure.
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Promote the accumulation of acetylcholine, resulting in prolonged cholinergic effects.
Adrenergic: produce effects similar to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
adrenergic blocking agents: Inhibit the adrenergic system, preventing stimulation of the adrenergic receptiors.
Aldosterone receptor antagonists: Block stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors by aldosterone, thus reducing high blood pressure by preventing sodium reabsorption.
aminoglycosides: Gentamicin, tobramycin, and related antibiotics, particulary effective against gram-negative microorganisms; noted for potentially dangerous toxicity.
analgesics: Narcotic and nonnarcotic; relieve pain without producing loss of consicousness ro reflex activity.
adrogens: these steroid hormones produce masculinizing effects.
angiotensin II receptor antagonists: ARBs: angiotension receptor blockers; act by binding to angiotensin II receptor sites preventing angiotensin II from binding to receptor sites in vascular smooth muscle, brain, heart, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Blocks bp elevating and Na+ retaineng effects.
anesthetics: for ex: local, and general anesthesia, cause a loss of sensation with our without loss of conciousness.
antacids: reduce the acidity of gastric contents.
antianginals: used to treat attacks of angina pectoris.
antianxiety: used to treat anxiety symptoms or disorders; also known as minor tranqulizers or anxiolytics, although the term tranquilizer is avoided today to prevent the misperception that the pt is being tranquilized.
antiarrhythmics: used to correct cardaic arrhythmias.
antibiotics: used to tx infections caused by pathogenic microbes, the term is often used interchangably with antimicrobial agents.
anticholinergic: block the action of acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system; aka cholinergic blocking agents, antispasmodics, and parasympatholytic agents.
anticoagulants: DO NOT dissolve existing blood clots, but do prevent enlargement or extension of them.
antivonvulsants: suppress abnorman neuronal activity in the CNS, preventing siezures.
antidepressants: relieve depression
antidiabetics: also known as hypoglycemics; include insulin, used to tx type I DM, and oral hypoglycemics agents used to tx type II.
antidiarrheals: relieve or control the sx of acute or chronic diarrhea.
antiemetics: used tp prevent or tx n/v.
antifungals: used to tx fungal infections.
antiglaucoma: used to reduce intraocular pressure.
antigout: used in tx of active gout attacks or to prevent future ones.
antihistamines: used to tx allergy sx; may also be used to tx motion sickness, insomnia, and other nonallergic reactions.
antihypertensives: used to tx elevated bp.
antilipemics: used to redue serum cholesterol and or triglycerides.
antimicrobials: chemicals that eliminate living microorganisms pathogenic to the pt, also called antibiotics, or antiinfectives.
antiparkinson's: used in teh tx of parkinson syndrome and other dyskinesias.
antiplatelets: prevent platelet clumping (aggregation), thereby preventing an essential step in the formation of a blood clot.
antipsychotics: used in the tx of severe mental illnesses, aka major tranquilizers or neuroleptics.
antipyretics: used to tx fevers assoc. with a variety of conditions.
antispasmodics: anticholinergic agents
antithyroid: used to treat the sx of hyperthyroidism; aka as thyroid hormone antagonists
antituberculins: used to prevent or tx an infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.
antiucler agents: such as histamine-2 antagonists, decrease the volume and increase the ph of gaastric secretions.
antitussive: used to supress a cough by acting on the cough center of the brain.
antiviral: used to tx infection caused by pathogenic viruses.
bronchodialators: stimulate receptors within the tracheobronchial tree to relax and dialate the airway passages, allowing a + volume of air to be exchanged and improving O2 levels.
beta blockers: inhibit the activity of sympathetic transmitters norepinephrine, and epinephrine; used to tx angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, and glaucoma.
calcium channel blockers: or calcium ion antagonists, slow channel blockers or CA+ ion influx inhibitors; inhibit the movement of Ca+ ions across the cell membrane; used to decrease arrhythmias, slow the rate of contraction of the heart, and cause dialation of blood vessles.
carbapenems: antibiotics that have a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; they act by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: interfere with the production of aqueous humor, thereby reducing the intraocular pressure assoc with glaucoma.
cell-stimulating agents: improve the immune function by stimulating the activity of various immune cells.
cholinergic: aka as parasympathomimetics; produce teh effects similar to those of acetylcholine.
cholinesterase inhibitors: these enzymes destroy acetylcholine, the cholinergic neurotransmitter.
coating agent: this drug, sucralfate, forms a complex that adheres to the crater of an ulcer, protecting it from aggravation by gastric secretions.
colony-stimulating factors: stimulate progenitor cells in the bone marrow to increase numbers of leukocytes, thereby improving immune functions.
cortiosteroids: these hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland.
cycloplegics: anticholinergic agents that paralyze accommodation of the iris of the eye.
decongestants: reduce swelling in the nasal passages caused by the common cold or allergic rhinitis.
digestants: combination products containing digestive enzymes used to tx various digestive disorders and to supplement deficiencies of natural digestive enzymes.
digitalis glycosides: a class of drugs, that increase the force of contraction and show the heart rate, thereby improving cardiac output.
diuretics: act to increase the flow of urine.
emetics: used to induce vomiting.
estrogens: steroids that cause feminizing effects.
expectorants: liquefy mucus by stimulating the natural lubricant fluids from the bronchial glands.
fluroquinolones: ciprofloxacin and related agents; widely used broad spectrum antibiotics.
gastric stimulants: used to increase stomach contractions, relax the pyloric valve, and increase peristalsis in the gi tract; result in a decrease in gastric transit time and more rapid emptying of the intestinal tract.
glucocorticoids: aka as adrenocorticosteroids; are sued to regulate CHO, fat and protein metaolism.
gonadal hormones: hormones produced by the testes in the male and ovaries in the female.
herbals: plant products usually sold as food supplements; may have pharmacologic effects that are not evaluated or regulated by the FDA.
histamine (H2) antagonists: decrease the volume and increase the ph of gastric secretions both druing the day and night.
HMG-CoA reductase enzyme inhibitors: Statins; antilipemic agents that inhibit hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase enzyme, the enzyme that stimulates the conversion fo HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid, p precursor in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, reduces potential for atherosclerosis.
hyperuricemics: used to decrese the production or increase the excretion of uric acid.
hypnotics: used to produce sleep.
insulins: hormone required for glucose transport to the cells.
lactation suppressants: used tp prevent physiologic lactation.
laxatives: act by a variety of mechanisms to treat constipation.
low molecular weight heparins: derivatives of heparin; anticoagulants for the prophylactic tx of pulmonary thromboembolism and DVT.
marcolides: erythromycin, azithromycin, and related antibiotics.
MAO inhibitors: agents that block monamine oxidase, thereby preventing the degradation and prolonging the action of norepinephrine and serotonin.
mineralocorticoids: steroids that cause the kidneys to retain Na+ and H2O.
miotics: cause constriction of the iris.
mucolytics: reduce the thickness and stickiness of pulmonary secretions by acting directly on the musous plugs to dissolve them.
muscle relaxants: relieve muscle spasams.
mydriatics: cause dialation of the iris.
neuromuscular blockers: skeletal muscle relaxants used to produe muscle relax during anesthesia; reduce the use and side effets of general anesthetics; used to ease endotracheal intubation and prevent laryngospasm.
nitrates: metabolize to nitric oxide, a potent vasodialator used to tx angina.
NASIDs: aspirin like drugs are chemically unrelated to the salicylates but are prostaglandin inhibitors.
opioids: centrally acting analgesic agents r/t morphine.
oral contraceptives: orally administered birth control.
oral hypoglycemics: used in type II diabetes mellitus to impove glucose metabolism and lower blood glucose levels.
progestins: Steroids regulating endometrial and myometrial function; used to tredat HIV infections.
salicylates: effective as analgesics, antipyretics, and antiinflammatory agents.
sedatives: given to an individual to produce relaxation and rest; do not necessarily produce sleep.
slective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI): antidepressants that act by specifically bloking the reuptake of serotonin, thus prolonging its action.
serotonin antagonists: used to block serotonin; prevent emesis induced by chemo, radiation and surgery.
statins: block the synthesis of cholesterol.
stool softeners: draw h2o into the stool, thereby softening it.
sympatholytics: interfere with the storage and release of norepinephrine.
sympathomimetics: mimic the action fo dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.
thrombolytics: a specific group of drugs given to dissolve existing blood clots.
thyroid hormone antagnoists: used to counteract or block the action of excessive formation of thyroid hormones.
thyroid hormones: used when thyroid hormones are not being produced or are not produced in sufficient quantities to meet the body's physiologic needs.
tricyclic antidepressants: inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
uricosuric agents: act on the tubules of the kidneys to enhance the excretion of uric acid.
urinary analgesics: produce a local anestetic effect on the mucosa of the ureters and bladder to relieve burning, pain , urgency and frequency assoc with UTIs.
urinary antimicrobials: substances excreted and concentrated in the urine in sufficeint amounts to have antiseptic effect on the urine and the urinary tract.
uterine relaxants: used primarily to prevent preterm labor and delivery.
uterine stimulants: used to increase the frequency or strength of uterine contractions.
vaccines: suspensions of either live, attenuated, or killed bacteria or viruses admin to induce immunity against infection fo specific bacteria or viruses.
vasodialators: relax the arteriolar smooth muscle, causing a dialation of the blood vessels.
Created by: heidiannee on 2009-05-04



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