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Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

TermDefinition
Pituitary Gland referred to as the "master gland" and connected to the hypothalamus of the brain
Anterior Pituitary Gland develops from an upward projection of the pharynx in the embryo and composed of regular endocrine tissue
Posterior Pituitary Gland develops from a downward projection of the base of the brain
Pineal Gland small cone- shaped structure, body's "biological clock" and produces melatonin
Thyroid Gland located in the front of the neck just below the larynx, on either side of the trachea, secretes hormones T3, T4 and Calcitonin
Parathyroid Glands consist of 4 tiny rounded bodies located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid, secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Thymus a single gland located in the mediastinum near the middle of the chest, just beneath the sternum, has a role in development of the immune system
Adrenal Glands consist of 2 small glands, with one being positioned atop each kidney, also known as suprarenal glands
Pancreas an elongated gland located in the ULQ of the abdomen, behind the stomach, contains specialized groups of cells (known as islets of Langerhans)
Ovaries female sex glands, responsible for ovulation
Testes male sex glands, produce testosterone
Acromegaly a chronic metabolic condition characterized by gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw and extremities due to oversecretion of the pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis The anterior pituitary gland
Adenoma A glandular tumor
Adenopathy Any disease of a gland, characterized by enlargement
Adrenalectomy Surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands
Adrenalitis Inflammation of the adrenal glands
Adrenocortical Pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland(s)
Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the blood
Androgen Any steroid hormone (e.g., testosterone) that increases male characteristics
Antidiuretic Pertaining to the suppression of urine production; an agent given to suppress the production of urine
Cortex Pertaining to the outer region of an organ or structure
Cortisol A steroid hormone occurring naturally in the body; also called hydrocortisone
Cretinism A congenital condition caused by a lack of thyroid secretion. Dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin and large tongue
Diabetes (Gestational) A condition occurring in pregnancy characterized by the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus and symptoms normally disappear after birth of baby
Diabetes (Insipidus) A metabolic disorder characterized by extreme polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria (excessive urination)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis A dangerous condition that occurs as a result of severe lack of insulin, causing the body to break down body fats instead of glucose for energy
Dwarfism A condition in which there is an abnormal underdevelopment of the body, extremely short height
Endocrine Gland A ductless gland that produces hormones directly into the bloodstream instead of exiting the body through ducts
Endocrinologist A physician who specializes in the medical practice of treating the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system
Endocrinology The field of medicine that studies the endocrine system
Epinephrine A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla, plays an important role in the body's response to stress
Estrogen Female hormone that promotes development of female secondary sex characteristics
Euthyroid Pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland
Exocrine Gland A gland that opens onto the surface of the skin through ducts in the epithelium, such as an oil gland or a sweat gland
Exophthalmia An abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs
Gigantism An abnormal condition characterized by excessive size and height
Glucagon A hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose
Glucogenesis The formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of from carbohydrates
Glucose The simplest form of sugar in the body
Glycogenesis The conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use as needed
Glycosuria The presence of sugar in the urine
Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to excessive growth (hyperplasia)
Gonads A term used to refer to the female and male sex glands
Grave's Disease Hyperthyroidism
Gynecomastia An abnormal enlargement of the breast in men; may involve one or both
Hirsutism A condition in which there is excessive body hair in a male distribution pattern
Hypercalcemia Elevated blood calcium level
Hyperglycemia Elevated blood sugar level
Hypergonadism Excessive activity of the ovaries or testes
Hyperinsulinism An excessive amount of insulin in the body
Hyperkalemia An elevated blood potassium level
Hypernatremia An elevated blood sodium level
Hyperparathyroidism Hyperactivity of any of the four parathyroid glands, resulting in an oversecretion of parathyroid hormone
Hyperpituitarism Overactivity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Hyperthyroidism Overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called Grave's Disease
Hypocalcemia Less than normal blood calcium level
Hypoglycemia Less than normal blood sugar level
Hypokalemia Less than normal blood potassium level
Hyponatremia Less than normal blood sodium level
Hypophysectomy Surgical removal of the pituitary gland
Hypothyroidism Less than normal activity of the thyroid gland
Insulin Shock A state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar level
Medulla The internal part of a structure or organ
Metabolism The sum of all physical and chemical processes that take place within the body
Myxedema The most severe form of hypothyroidism in the adult
Norepinephrine A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla, plays a role in the body's response to stress by raising blood pressure
Oxytocin A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, stimulates contractions of the uterus and release of milk from breasts
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyphagia Excessive eating
Polyuria The excretion of excessively large amounts of urine
Progesterone A female hormone secreted by the ovaries
Somatotropic Hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth; also known as growth hormone
Syndrome A group of symptoms occurring together, indicative of a particular disease or abnormality
T-Cells Specialized lymphocytes that are involved in the immune response
Tetany A condition characterized by severe cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints
Thymopoietin A hormone secreted by the thymus, thought to stimulate the production of T-cells
Thymosin A hormone secreted by the thymus, thought to stimulate the production of specialized lymphocytes, called T-cells
Thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland
Thyroxine A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, helps maintain normal body metabolism (abbreviated as T4)
Triiodothyronine A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, helps regulate growth and development of the body and control metabolism and body temperature (abbreviated T3)
Virilism The development of the masculine physical traits in the female, also called masculinization
acr/o EXTREMITIES
aden/o GLAND
adren/o ADRENAL GLANDS
adrenal/o ADRENAL GLANDS
andr/o MAN, MALE
calc/o CALCIUM
cortic/o CORTEX
crin/o SECRETE
-crine SECRETE
dips/o THIRST
-dipsia THIRST
gonad/o SEX GLANDS
glu/o SUGAR, SWEET
glyc/o SUGAR, SWEET
gynec/o WOMAN
-itis INFLAMMATION
kal/i POTASSIUM
lact/o MILK
mastitis BREAST
myx/o RELATING TO MUCUS
natr/i SODIUM
oxy- SHARP, QUICK
pancreat/o PANCREAS
parathyroid/o PARATHYROID GLANDS
somat/o BODY
thym/o THYMUS GLAND
thyr/o THYROID GLAND
thyroid/o THYROID GLAND
toxic/o POISONS
-tropin STIMULATING EFFECT OF A HORMONE
-uria URINE CONDITION
ACTH stands for Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
ADH stands for Antidiuretic Hormone
BMR stands for Basal Metabolic Rate
Ca stands for Calcium
DI stands for Diabetes Insipidus
DKA stands for Diabetic Ketoacidosis
DM stands for Diabetes Mellitus
FBS stands for Fasting Blood Sugar
FSH stands for Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
GH stands for Growth Hormone
GTT stands for Glucose Tolerance Test
HDL stands for High-Density Lipoprotein
HbA1c stands for Hemoglobin A1c
IDDM stands for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; also known as Type 1 Diabetes
K stands for Potassium
LH stands for Luteinizing Hormone
LTH stands for Lactogenic Hormone
MSH stands for Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
Na stands for Sodium
NIDDM stands for Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; also known as Type 2 Diabetes
OT stands for Oxytocin
PBI stands for Protein-Bound Iodine
PTH stands for Parathyroid Hormone
RAI stands for Radioactive Iodine
RAIU stands for Radioactive Iodine Uptake
T3 stands for Triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)
T4 stands for Thyroxine (thyroid hormone)
TFT stands for Thyroid Function Test
TSH stands for Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
VLDL stands for Very-Low Density Lipoprotein
Serum Glucose Test measures the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample was drawn
Thyroid Echogram an ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
Thyroid Function Tests laboratory tests that measure the blood levels of the T3, T4 and TSH hormones, to determine how well the thyroid gland is working
Thyroid Scan test that determines the position, size, shape and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of a radionuclear scanning
Thyroid Panel laboratory blood test that produces an enhanced thyroid profile
Pancreatitis An acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
Conn's Disease A condition characterized by excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone, causes body to retain extra sodium and excrete extra potassium
Addison's Disease A life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
Cushing's Syndrome A condition of the adrenal gland in which a cluster of symptoms occur as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in the blood
Created by: wallace263