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Chapter 10 Medical Terminology

Responsibilities of cardiovascular system Pumping blood to the body tissues and cells, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tissues and cells,removing carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism from tissues and cells
Heart Center of the circulatory system
Enclosed by pericardium
3 components of pericardium Parietal pericardium, Visceral pericardium, Pericardial cavity
Three layers of the heart Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
Heart Chambers right atrium and left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle
Right atrium and left atrium Upper chambers, Receiving chambers
Right ventricle and left ventricle Lower chambers,Pumping chambers
Heart Partitions Interatrial septum, Interventricular septum
Interatrial septum Separates right and left sides of atria
Interventricular septum Separates right and left sides of ventricles
Circulation Through the Heart Deoxygenated blood and Oxygenated blood
Deoxygenated blood Enters right atrium from superior vena cava,Brings blood from head, thorax, upper limbs, and abdominal viscera, Also enters right atrium from inferior vena cava,Brings blood from the trunk, lower limbs, and abdominal viscera
Deoxygenated blood travels from right atrium through tricuspid valve into right ventricle from right ventricle through pulmonary valve into right and left pulmonary arteries from pulmonary arteries to lungs
_________ arteries are the only arteries that carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood pulmonary
____________ takes place in the lungs exchange of gases
Oxygenated blood Enters left atrium from lungs via pulmonary veins, from left atrium through mitral valve into left ventricle through aortic valve into aorta to arteries to each body part and region.
Pulmonary circulation Circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart
Systemic circulation Circulation of blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart
Coronary arteries Arise from aorta near its origin at left ventricle, Supply blood to heart muscle
_____________has a greater need for oxygen and nutrients heart muscle
_______uses approximately 3 times more oxygen than other body organs heart
Conduction System of the Heart - Sinoatrial Node (SA Node) sets rhythm for entire heart and is pacemaker
Impulse from SA node causes atria to contract, Impulse travels from SA node to Atrioventricular node (AV node)
Impulse from AV node travels to ventricles through Bundle of His
Bundle of His divides into right and left bundle branches
Bundle branches terminate in Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers fan out into the muscles of the ventricles causing ventricles to contract
Supporting Blood Vessels Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins
Arteries Large, thick-walled vessels,Carry blood away from the heart
Arterioles Thinner walls than arteries,Transport blood on to capillaries
Capillaries Extremely thin walls = single layer,Allow for exchange of materials between blood and tissue fluid surrounding body cells
Venules Smallest veins,Collect deoxygenated blood from cells for transport back to heart
Veins Thinner walls than arteries,Thicker walls than capillaries,Transport blood from venules to heart
Cardiac Cycle Phases Diastole and Systole
One Cardiac Cycle = One Complete Heartbeat
Diastole Relaxation phase of heartbeat,Ventricles relax and fill with blood
Systole Contraction phase of heartbeat,Ventricles contract,Force blood out of heart
Blood Pressure Pressure exerted by blood on walls of arteries
Blood Pressure is measured by what 2 numbers? Systolic Pressure, Diastolic Pressure
Systolic Pressure Maximum pressure reached within the ventricles
Diastolic Pressure Minimum pressure reached within the ventricles
Sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) Used to measure blood pressure
Angina Pectoris Severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to left shoulder and down left arm. Creates feeling of pressure in anterior chest
Cardiac Tamponade Compression of the heart caused by accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac. Accumulation of fluid in pericardial cavity prevents ventricles from adequately filling or pumping blood
Cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle itself, primarily affecting pumping ability of the heart. It is a noninflammatory disease of the heart and results in enlargement of the heart and dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart
Congestive Heart Failure condition in which pumping ability of heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs
Congestive Heart Failure – 2 Types Left-sided cardiac failure and Right-sided cardiac failure
Left-sided cardiac failure Left ventricle unable to pump blood that enters from the lungs
5 characteristics of Left-sided cardiac failure Dyspnea,Moist sounding cough,Fatigue,Tachycardia,Restlessness,Anxiety
Right-sided cardiac failure Right side of heart cannot empty blood received from venous circulation
8 Characteristics of Right-sided cardiac failure Edema of lower extremities (pitting edema), Weight gain,Ascites,Anorexia,Nocturia,Weakness,enlargement of liver (hepatomegaly),Distended neck veins,
Coronary Artery Disease Narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented
Coronary Artery Disease Treatments (5) Medications,Percutaneous Transluminal,Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA),Directional Coronary Atherectomy,Coronary Bypass Surgery( Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG))
Endocarditis Inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart caused by direct invasion of bacteria or other organisms and leads to deformity of valve cusps
Hypertensive Heart Disease Heart disease as a result of long-term hypertension,Heart must work against increased resistance due to increased pressure in the arteries
Mitral Valve Prolapse Drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, Results in incomplete closure of the valve and mitral insufficiency
Myocardial Infarction Condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries (destruction of myocardial tissue), known as Heart attack
Myocarditis Inflammation of the myocardium -May be viral or bacterial infectionMay be result of systemic disease or May be caused by fungal infections, serum sickness, or chemical agent
Pericarditis Inflammation of the pericardium (saclike membrane) that covers the heart muscle, May be acute or chronic
Rheumatic Fever Inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract
Aneurysm Localized dilatation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall. Weakened area balloons out with each pulsating of artery
Arteriosclerosis Arterial condition in which there is thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries (hardening of the arteries)Results in decreased blood supply, especially to lower extremities and cerebrum
Hypertension Condition in which the patient has a higher blood pressure than judged to be normal and Blood pressure persistently exceeds 140/90 mmHg
3 Types of Hypertension Essential hypertension, Secondary hypertension, Malignant hypertension
Essential hypertension Accounts for 90 percent of all hypertension,No single known cause
Secondary hypertension Due to underlying cause
Malignant hypertension Severe and rapidly progressive,Diastolic pressure higher than 120 mmHg
Arterial Occlusive Disease Obstruction of the arteries in the extremities (predominantly the legs),Leading cause = atherosclerosis,Classic symptom is intermittent claudication
Raynaud’s Phenomenon Intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles,Causes pallor of the fingers or toes, followed by cyanosis, then redness, before returning to normal color (white-blue-red),Initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance
Thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot),Usually occurs in an extremity, most frequently a leg
2 types of Thrombophlebitis Superficial Thrombophlebitis, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Usually obvious, Accompanied by cordlike or thready appearance to the vessel
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Occurs primarily in lower legs, thighs, and pelvic area and is characterized by aching or cramping pain in legs
Varicose Veins Enlarged, superficial veins,Twisted, dilated veins with incompetent valves
Varicose Veins Treatment Rest and elevation of affected extremity,Use of elastic stockings,Sclerotherapy,Injection of a chemical irritant into the varicosed vein (sclerosing agent),Vein stripping
Venous Insufficiency An abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body
Congenital Heart Diseases Coarctation of the Aorta,
Coarctation of the Aorta Congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta Results in increased blood pressure in upper extremities and decreased blood pressure in lower extremities
Patent Ductus Arteriosus Abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth Defect seen primarily in premature infants
Tetralogy of Fallot Congenital heart anomaly that consists of four defects - Pulmonary stenosisInterventricular septal defect Dextraposition of aorta (shifts to the right) Hypertrophy of right ventricle
Transposition of the Great Vessels Condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position Results in two non-communicating circulatory systems
6 Arrhythmias Atrial Flutter,Atrial Fibrillation, Fibrillation, Ventricular Fibrillation, Heart Block, Ventricular Tachycardia
Atrial Flutter Condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 to 400 beats per minute
Fibrillation (Atrial Fibrillation) Extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria Rate of contractions may be as high as 350 to 600 beats per minute
Fibrillation (Ventricular Fibrillation) Rapid, tremulous (quivering like a bowl of Jell-O) and ineffectual contractions of the ventriclesNo audible heartbeatNo palpable pulseNo respirationNo blood circulation If prolonged, will lead to cardiac arrest
Heart Block (AV) An interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
Ventricular Tachycardia Condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute,Characterized by three or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions,Also known as V-tach
Angiography X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance (contrast medium
Cardiac catheterization Diag procedure-catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery, usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart,Used to obtain detailed information about the structure and function of the heart, etc.
Cardiac Enzymes Test Tests performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle
(CAT) Computed Axial Tomography Diagnostic X-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body,Often used to detect aneurysms of the aorta
Echocardiography Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart,Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
Electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) Graphic record of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin
Exercise stress testing Means of assessing cardiac function, by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress, for example, using the treadmill
Holter monitoring Small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder,Continuous EKG (ambulatory EKG) is recorded on a magnetic tape recording while the patient conducts normal daily activities
Event monitor Similar to the Holter monitor in that it also records the electrical activity of the heart while patient goes about usual daily activities,Can be used for a longer period of time than a Holter monitor,Usually a month
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart’s rhythm.If abnormal rhythm occurs, the ICD helps return the heart to its normal rhythm
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Use of strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce imaging that is valuable in providing images of the heart, large blood vessels, brain, and soft tissue,Used to examine the aorta, to detect masses or possible tumors, and pericardial disease
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Computerized x-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures, such as the heart and blood vessels,Patient is given doses of strong radioactive tracers by injection or inhalat
Serum Lipid Test that measures the amount of fatty substances (cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins) in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture
Thallium Stress Combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise
analgesic pertaining to relieving pain; a medicaiton that relieves pain.
anastomosis a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other.
aneursysmectomy surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm.
anomaly deviation from normal
arthralgia joint pain
ascites an abnormal collection of fluid withing the peritoneal cavity.
bruit an abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery or organ with a stethoscope.
claudication cramplike pai ns in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation ot the muscles of the legs; associated with atherosclerosis.
coronary artery branch from the aorta and supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle (myocardium)
cusp any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart.
dependent edema a fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity.
dysrhythmia abnormal rhythm
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver.
Homan's sign pain felt in the calf of the leg, or behind the knee, when the examiner is purposely dorsiflexing the foot of the patient-positive indicates thrombophlebitus
hypotension low blood pressure;less than normal blood pressure reading.
infarction a localized area of necrosis from a lack of oxygen due to interruption of blood flow.
ischemia decreased supply of oxygenated blood.
lumen a cavity or the channel within any organ or structure
mediastinum area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi.
myocardium middle, muscular layer of the heart.
nocturia urination at night.
occlusion state of being closed
orthopnea an abnormal condition in which a person sits up straight or stands up to breathe comfortably
palpable detectable by touch
palpitation a pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders.
pericardium the double membranous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels.
petechiae small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin;may be due to abnormality in the blood-clotting system.
pitting edema is swelling usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent.
prophylactic an agent that protects against disease.
pulmonary arteries only arteries in the body to carry deoxygenated blood (carried from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation).
pulmonary circulation circulation of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the left atrium of the heart(from heart->lungs->to heart)
pulmonary vein one of 4 large veins(two from each lung) that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. pulmonary veins are only veins in body to carry oxygenated blood.
septum a wall, or partition, that divides or separates 2 cavities. The interatrial septum separates the right and left atria, the atrioventricular septum separates the atria and the ventricles, and the interventricular septum separates the right and left ventric
serum sickness a hypersensitivity reaction that may occur 2-3 weeks after administration of an antiserum.
Sydenham's chorea a form of chorea(involuntary muscle twitching) associated with rheumatic fever, usually occurring in childhood.
systemic circulation circulation of blood from l.ventricle of heart->body->r.atrium of heart via capillaries.
systole contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries.
thrombosis formation or existence of a blood clot.
vasoconstriction narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel.
vegetation abnormal growth of tissue around a valve.
coarctation a congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities and decreased in the lower.
atrial flutter condition-contractions of the atria become extremely rapid(250-400/beats per min.)
patent ductus arteriosus an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure at birth.
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AS aortic stenosis
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
A-V atrioventricular
BBB bundle branch block
BP blood pressure
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
Cath. catheter
CC cardiac catheterization
CCU coronary care unit; critical care unit
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT computed tomography
CT (scan) computed tomography (scan)
CVD cardiovascular disease
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG Electrocardiogram; electrocardiograph
ECHO echocardiography
EKG Electrocardiogram; electrocardiograph
HCVD hypertensive cardiovascular disease
HDL high-density lipoprotein
ICD implantable cardioversion defibrillator
LDL low-density lipoprotein
MI myocardial infarction
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS mitral stenosis
MVP mitral valve prolapse
PACs premature atrial contractions
PAT paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PET positron emission tomography
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVCs premature ventricular contraction
SA sinoatrial
VSD ventricular septal defect
VT ventricular tachycardia
A-fib atrial fibrillation
HTN hypertension
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
bradycardia a slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute.
cyanosis slightly bluish, grayish, sltelike or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
tachycardia abnormal rapid heart action, usually over 100 beats per minute.
Created by: kcannon