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cardiovascular

chapter 10

TermDefinition
diastolic phase ventricles relax and fill with blood through the aorta
implantable cardioverter defibrillator small, lightweight electronic device that is place under the skin or muscle in either chest or abdomen to monitor heart's rhythm
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart caused by the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac, thus preventing the ventricles from adequately filling or pumping blood
hypoxemia insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood
palpitation pounding or racing of the heart associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders
angina pectoris severe pain and constriction around the heart, creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest
coarctation of the aorta congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta
ascites abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
arrhythmia an deviation form the normal pattern of the heartbeat i.e. atrial flutter, fibrillation, heart block, ventricular tachycardia
claudication medical term for cramp-like pain in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation
myocarditis inflammation of the heart muscle
tacycardia abnormally rapid heart rate
hyperlipidemia excessive level of fats in the blood
secondary hypertension hypertension as a complication of kidney disease
endocarditis inflammation of the lining and valves of the heart
myocardial infarction commonly known as a "heart attack"
patent ductus arteriosus PDA - abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
tetralogy of Fallot congenital heart anomaly that consists of four separate defects
atherosclerosis fatty deposits building up within arterial walls
essential hypertension accounts for % of all hypertension
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
aneurysm localized dilatation of an artery which may rupture
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with clot formation
varicose veins enlarged, twisted, dilated veins with incompetent valves
mitral valve prolapse click-murmur syndrome
ventricular tachycardia condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate of beats per minute; characterized by three or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions
venous insufficiency abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body
dyspnea difficulty breathing
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle, primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart
asystole absence of contractions of the heart
percutaneous transluminal balloon procedure
Holter monitoring a continuous EKG
electrocardiogram EKG - records heart electrical activity
directional coronary atherectomy plaque is removed via a catheter
coronary bypass surgery rerouting coronary blood flow
sclerotherapy varicose vein treatment - injecting a chemical into the vein
echocardiography evaluates heart structure coronary angioplasty and function
anastomosis surgical joining of two blood vessels
Purkinje fibers spread electrical impulse to the ventricles - part of the conduction system of the heart
sinoatrial node pacemaker of the heart
mediastinum where the heart is located - in the thoracic cavity between the lungs, just behind the sternum
precordium area of the chest covering the heart
pericardium dcuble membranous sac that encloses the heart
parietal pericardium outer covering of the pericardium
visceral pericardium/epicardium inner layer of the pericardium
pericardial cavity small space between the parietal pericardium and the epicardium or visceral pericardium
three layers of the heart epicardium (outer), myocardium (middle-muscle), endocardium (inner)
four chambers of the heart right and left atria (singular: atrium) - right and left ventricles (ventricle)
septum separates right and left side of the heart
interartrial septum divides the walls of the left and right atria
interventricular septum divides the walls of the ventricles
pulmonary circulation circulation of the blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation back to the heart
systemic circulation circulation of the blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart
circulation through the heart superior/inferior vena cava-right atrium-tricuspid valve-right ventricle-pulmonary valve-pulmonary arteries-lung-pulmonary veins-left atrium-mitral (bicuspid) valve-left ventricle-aortic valve-aorta-heart and body
conduction system what makes heart contract rhythmically - electric impulses move from SA node in right atrium to AV node to bundle of His to Purkinje fibers
arteries large, thick-walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arterioles smaller, thin-walled arteries
capillaries minute blood vessels that allow for exchange of materials
venules smallest veins transport deoxygenated blood back to heart
veins transports blood from venules to heart
systole contraction - forcing blood out of the heart
diastole relaxation - allowing heart to refill with blood
blood pressure (BP) pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries - top number is systolic - bottom diastolic 120/80
sphygmomanometer BP cuff
anorexia loss of appetite
arthralgia joint pain
edema collection of fluid within the body tissues causing swelling
embolus clot or part of a clot that has dislodged from another vessel and moved into a smaller vessel
hypertension high blood pressure
hypotension low blood pressure
thrombosis formation of a blood clot
pallor lack of color/paleness
congestive heart failure cardiac failure pumping ability of the heart is impaired so that it no longer meets bodily needs - weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort, edema
coronary artery disease narrowing of the coronary arteries - results in inadequate blood supply to myocardium
rheumatic fever inflammatory disease that develops from insufficiently treated group A beta-hemolytic strep
Raynaud's phenomenon initiated by exposure to cold or stress - white (pallor), blue (cyanosis), red (return of color)
atrial fibrillation extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of atria - twitching
ventricular fibrillation rapid, tremulous contractions of ventricles (quivering like a bowl of gelatin) - no audible heartbeat, no palpable pulse, no respiration, no blood circulation - lead to cardiac arrest
heart block (AV) interference with electric impulses that control heart muscle
event monitor similar to Holter but can be used for a longer period of time
Created by: gcjlentz