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Terminology #6

Cardiovascular System

TermDefinition
aorta largest artery of the body; vessel through which oxygenated blood exits the heart
aortic valve valve between the aorta and the left ventricle
arteriole a tiny artery connecting to a capillary
artery a thick-walled blood vessel that, in systemic circulation, carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
atrioventricular bundle bundle of fivers in the inter ventricular septum that transfers charges in the heart's conduction system; also called bundle of His
atrioventricular (AV) node specialized part of the interatrial septum that sends a charge to the bundle of His
atrioventricular valve one of two valves that control blood flow between the atria and ventricles
atrium (p. atria) either of the two upper chambers of the heart
bicuspid valve atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart
blood essential fluid made up of plasma & other elements that circulates throughout the body; delivers nutrients to and removes waste from the body's cells
blood pressure measure of the force of blood surging against the walls of the arteries
blood vessel any of the tubular passageways in the cardiovascular system through which blood travels
bundle of His *see atrioventricular bundle
capillary the smallest blood vessel that forms the exchange point between the arterial and venous vessels
carbon dioxide waste material transported in the venous blood
cardiac cycle repeated contraction and relaxation of the heart as it circulates blood within itself and pumps it out to the rest of the body or the lungs
cardiovascular Relating to or affecting the heart and blood vessels.
carotid artery artery that transports oxygenated blood to the head and neck
conduction system part of the heart containing specialized tissue that sends electrical charges through heart fibers, causing the heart to contract and relax at regular intervals
coronary artery blood vessel that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart
depolarization contracting state of the myocardial tissue in the heart's conduction system
diastole relaxation phase of a heartbeat
ductus arteriousus structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the fetus's nonfunctioning lungs
ductus venosus structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the fetal liver
endocardium membranous lining of the chambers and valves of the heart; the innermost layer of heart tissue
endothelium lining of the arteries that secretes substances into the blood
epicardium outermost layer of heart tissue
femoral artery an artery that supplies blood to the thigh
foramen ovale opening in the septum of the fetal heart that closes at birth
heart muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and sends it into the arteries
inferior vena cava large vein that draws blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium
left atrium upper left heart chamber
left ventricle lower left heart chamber
lumen channel inside an artery through which blood flows
mitral valve *see bicuspid valve
myocardium muscular layer of heart tissue between the epicardium and the endocardium
pacemaker term for the sinoatrial (SA) node; also, an artificial device that regulates heart rhythm
pericardium protective covering of the heart
polarization resting state of the myocardial tissue in the conduction system of the heart
popliteal artery an artery that supplies blood to the cells of the area behind the knee
pulmonary artery one of two arteries that carry blood that is low in oxygen from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary valve valve that controls the blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries
pulmonary vein one of four veins that bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
pulse rhythmic expansion and contraction of a blood vessel, usually an artery
repolarization recharging state; transition from contraction to resting that occurs in the conduction system of the heart
right atrium upper right chamber of the heart
right ventricle lower right chamber of the heart
saphenous vein any of a group of veins that transport deoxygenated blood from the legs
semilunar valve one of the two valves that prevent the back flow of blood flowing out of the heart into the aorta and the pulmonary artery
septum (p. septa) partition between the left and right chambers of the heart
sinoatrial (SA) node region of the right atrium containing specialized tissue that sends electrical impulses to the heart muscle, causing it to contract
sinus rhythm normal heart rhythm
super vena cava large vein that transports blood collected from the upper part of the body to the heart
systole contraction phase of the heartbeat
tricuspid valve atrioventricular valve on the right side of the heart
valve any of various structures that slow or prevent fluid from flowing backward or forward
vein any of various blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood toward the heart, except the pulmonary vein
vena cava (p. venae cavae) *see superior vena cava & inferior vena cava
ventricle either of the two lower chambers of the heart
venule a tiny vein connecting to a capillary
angiocardiography viewing of the heart and its major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
angiography viewing of the heart's major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
aortography viewing of the aorta by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
arteriography viewing of a specific artery by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
auscultation process of listening to body sounds via a stethoscope
cardiac catheterization process of passing a thin catheter through an artery or vein to the heart to take blood samples, inject a contrast medium, or measure various pressures
cardiac enzyme tests/studies blood tests for determining levels of enzymes during a myocardial infarction; serum enzyme tests
cardiac MRI viewing of the heart by magnetic resonance imaging
cardiac scan process of viewing the heart muscle at work by scanning the heart of a patient into whom a radioactive substance has been injected
cholesterol fatty substance present in animal fats; cholesterol circulates int the bloodstream, sometimes causing arterial plaque to form
digital subtraction angiography use of two angiograms done with different dyes to provide a comparison between the results
doppler ultrasound ultrasound test of blood flow in certain blood vessels
echocardiography use of sound waves to produce images showing the structure and motion of the heart
ejection fraction percentage of the volume of the contents of the left ventricle ejected with each contraction
electrocardiography use of the electrocardiograph in diagnosis
holter monitor portable device that provides a 24-hour electrocardiogram
lipid profile laboratory test that provides the levels of lipids, triglycerides, and other substances in the blood
multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) angiography radioactive scan showing heart function
phlebography viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
positron emission tomography (PET) scan type of nuclear image that measures movement of areas of the heart
serum enzyme tests laboratory tests performed to detect enzymes present during or after a myocardial infarction; cardiac enzyme studies
sonography production of images based on the echoes of sound waves against structures
sphygmomanometer device for measuring blood pressure
stress test test that measures heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions while the patient is exercising on a treadmill
triglyceride fatty substance; lipid
venography viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
ventriculogram x-ray of a ventricle taken after injection of a contrast medium
aneurysm ballooning of the artery wall caused by weakness in the wall
angina angina pectoris
angina pectoris chest pain, usually caused by a lowered oxygen or blood supply to the heart
aortic regurgitation backward flow or leakage of blood through a faulty aortic valve
aortic stenosis narrowing of the aorta
arrhythmia irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
arteritis inflammation of an artery or arteries
asystole cardiac arrest
atheroma a fatty deposit (plaque) in the wall of an artery
atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries caused by the buildup of atheromas
atrial fibrillation an irregular, usually rapid, heartbeat caused by overstimulation of the AV node
atrioventricular block heart block; partial or complete blockage of the electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles
bacterial endocarditis bacterial inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
bradycardia heart rate of fewer then 60 beats per minute
bruit sound or murmur, especially an abnormal heart sound heard on auscultation, especially of the carotid artery
cardiac arrest sudden stopping of the heart; also called asystole
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
claudication limping caused by inadequate blood supply during activity; usually subsides during rest
coarctation of the aorta abnormal narrowing of the aorta
congenital heart disease heart disease (usually a type of malformation) that exists at birth
constriction compression or narrowing caused by contraction, as of a vessel
coronary artery disease condition that reduces the flow of blood and nutrients through the arteries of the heart
cyanosis bluish or purplish coloration, as of the skin, caused by inadequate oxygenation of the blood
deep vein thrombosis formation of a thrombus (clot) in a deep vein, such as a femoral vein
dysrhythmia abnormal heart rhythm
embolus mass of foreign material blocking a vessel
endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium, especially an inflammation caused by a bacterial or fungal agent
essential hypertension high blood pressure without any known cause
fibrillation random, chaotic, irregular heart rhythm
flutter regular but very rapid heartbeat
gallop triple sound of a heartbeat, usually indicative of serious heart disease
heart block *see atrioventricular block
hemorrhoid varicose condition of veins in the anal region
high blood pressure *see hypertension
hypertension chronic condition with blood pressure greater than 140/90
hypertensive heart disease heart disease caused, or worsened, by high blood pressure
hypotension chronic condition with blood pressure below normal
infarct area of necrosis caused by a sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood
infarction sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood, often due to an embolus or thrombus
intermittent claudication attacks of limping, particularly in the legs, due to ischemia of the muscles
intracardiac tumor a tumor within one of the heart chambers
ischemia localized blood insufficiency caused by an obstruction
low blood pressure *see hypotension
mitral insufficiency / reflux backward flow of blood due to a damaged mitral valve
mitral stenosis abnormal narrowing at the opening of the mitral valve
mitral valve prolapse backward flow of blood into the left atrium due to protrusion of one or both mitral cusps into the left atrium during contractions
murmur soft heart humming sound heard between normal beats
myocardial infarction sudden drop in the supply of blood to an area of the heart muscle, usually due to a blockage in a coronary artery
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium
necrosis death of tissue or an organ part due to irreversible damage; usually a result of oxygen deprivation
occlusion the closing of a blood vessel
palpitations uncomfortable pulsations of the heart felt as a thumping in the chest
patent ductus arteriosus a condition at birth in which the ductus arteriousus, a small duct between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, remains abnormally open
perfusion deficit lack of flow through a blood vessel, usually caused by an occlusion
pericarditits inflammation of the pericardium
peripheral vascular disease vascular disease in the lower extremities, usually due to the blockages in the arteries of the groin or legs
petechiae minute hemorrhages in the skin
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
plaque buildup of solid material, such as a fatty deposit, on the lining of an artery
premature atrial contractions (PACs) atrial contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations
premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) ventricular contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations
pulmonary artery stenosis narrowing of the pulmonary artery, preventing the lungs from receiving enough blood from the heart to oxygenate
pulmonary edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs
raynaud's phenomenon spasm in the arteries of the fingers causing numbness or pain
rheumatic heart disease heart valve and/or muscle damage caused by an untreated streptococcal infection
risk factor any of various factors considered to increase the probability that a disease will occur; for example, high blood pressure and smoking are considered risk factors for heart disease
rub frictional sound heard between heartbeats, usually indication a pericardial murmur
secondary hypertension hypertension having a known cause, such as kidney disease
septal defect congenital abnormality consisting of an opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles
stenosis narrowing, particularly of blood vessels or of the cardiac valves
tachycardia heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute
tetralogy of fallot set of four congenital heart abnormalities appearing together that cause deoxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation: ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, incorrect position of the aorta, and rich ventricular hypertrophy
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein with a thrombus
thrombosis presence of a thrombus in a blood vessel
thrombotic occlusion narrowing caused by a thrombus
thrombus stationary blood clot in the cardiovascular system, usually formed from matter found in the blood
tricuspid stenosis abnormal narrowing of the opening of the tricuspid valve
valvulitis inflammation of a heart valve
varicose vein dilated, enlarged, or twisted vein, usually on the leg
vegetation clot on a heart valve or opening, usually caused by infection
anastomosis surgical connection of two blood vessels to allow blood flow between them
angioplasty opening of a blocked blood vessel, as by balloon dilation
angioscopy viewing of the interior o f a blood vessel using a fiberoptic catheter inserted or threaded into the vessel
arteriotomy surgical incision into an artery, especially to remove a clot
atherectomy surgical removal of an atheroma
balloon catheter dilation insertion of a balloon catheter into a blood vessel to open the passage so blood can flow freely
balloon valvuloplasty procedure that uses a balloon catheter to open narrowed orifices in cardiac valves
bypass a structure (usually a vein graft) that creates a new passage for blood flow from one artery to another artery or part of an artery; used to create a detour around blockages in the arteries
cardiopulmonary bypass procedure used during surgery to divert blood flow to and from the heart through a heart- lung machine and back into circulation
coronary angioplasty *see angioplasty
coronary bypass surgery *see bypass
embolectomy surgical removal of an embolus
endarterectomy surgical removal of the diseased portion of the lining of an artery
endovascular surgery any of various procedures performed during cardiac catheterization, such as angioscopy and atherectomy
fontan's operation surgical procedure that creates a bypass from the right atrium to the main pulmonary artery; fontal's procedure
graft any tissue or organ implanted to replace or mend damaged areas
heart transplant implantation of the heart of a person who has just died into a person whose diseased heart cannot sustain life
hemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemorrhoids
intravascular stent stent placed within a blood vessel to allow blood to flow freely
percutaneous trans luminal coronary angioplasty *see balloon catheter dilation
phlebotomy drawing blood from a vein via a small incision
stent surgically implanted devices used to hold something (as a blood vessel) open
thrombectomy surgical removal of a thrombus
valve replacement surgical replacement of a coronary valve
valvotomy incision into a cardiac valve to remove an obstruction
valvuloplasty surgical reconstruction of a cardiac valve
venipuncture small puncture into a vein, usually to draw blood or inject a solution
Created by: Kass.Ignacio