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muscles & joints

A&P chapter 7

TermDefinition
arthroscopy visualization of the interior of a joint by using an endoscope
bunion abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe
crepitation/crepitatis clicking or crackling sound heard upon joint movement
subluxation an incomplete dislocation
oseteoarthritis aka DJD or degenerative joint disease - most common form of arthritis results from wear and tear on the joints (hips and knees)
joint articulation
smooth/visceral muscle found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes such as stomach, intestines, blood vessels & respiratory passageways
shoulder muscle deltoid
calf muscle gastrocnemius
muscle of the fleshy part of the buttocks gluteus maximus
supination the act of turning the palm up or forward
pronation the act of turning the palm down or backward
chest muscle pectoralis major
dorsiflexion bending the foot backward or upward at the ankle
vastus lateralis located on the outer side of the femur (sight for IM injections)
flexion bending motion that decreases the angle between two bones
extension straightening motion that increases the angle between two bones
plantar flexion bending the foot downward at the ankle as in ballet dancing
insertion point of attachment of the muscle to the bone it moves
origin point of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is less movable
ganglion cystic tumor developing on a tendon (sometimes on back of wrist)
arthralagia pain in the joints
arthritis inflammation of the joints
masseter muscle located at the angle of the jaw - raises the mandible and closes the jaw - used when biting or chewing
adduction movement toward midline
abduction movement away from midline
rotator cuff helps lift and rotate the arm - hold the head of the humerus in places during abduction of the arm (shoulder)
involuntary muscles cardiac and smooth/visceral
voluntary muscles skeletal
striated muscles cardiac and skeletal
non-striated muscles smooth/visceral
myocitis inflammation of the muscle
myalgia muscle pain fibromyalgia = chronic condition - muscle pain throughout the body
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve characterized by pain along the course of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg
bursa small sac that contains synovial fluid for lubricating the area around the joint
dystonia pertaining to bad tone
ligament attaches bone to bone
tendon attaches muscle to bone
fascia thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that penetrate and cover the entire muscle
polyarthritis inflammation of many joints
polymyocitis inflammation of many muscles
atrophy without development - wasting away
dystrophy bad formation
rotation turning of the bone on its own axis
circumduction movement of an extremity around in a circular motion
plegia paralysis
paresis partial paralysis
sprain injury involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint - wrenching or twisting motion (knee, ankle)
strain injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of a tendon caused by overstretching, overextension or misuse
sutures fibrous joints, immovable (cranial)
cartilaginous joint the bones are connected by cartilage - symphysis = joint between the pucbic bones of the pelvis
inversion movement where toes are turned inward towards midline
eversion movement where toes are turned outward away from midline
sternocleidomastoid muscle that extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process (behind the ear) - assists with bending your neck and turning head side to side
dislocation displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint
Created by: gcjlentz