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Infectious Diseases

For HealthScience @ CCE - 2016

TermDefinition
Microorganism An organism visible only with the assistance of a microscope.
Bacteria A class of single-celled prokaryotic organisms that lack nuclei and organelles, typically protected by a rigid cell wall.
Protozoa A class of unicellular eukaryotic animal-like organisms that consume other microorganisms for energy.
Fungi A class of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that obtain nutrition from other living or dead organisms and are protected by a cell wall of chitin.
Rickettsiae A class of inherently parasitic bacteria that have the ability to change shape, and are often transmitted by arthropods, animals, and fecal matter.
Viruses A class of non-living, prokaryotic microorganisms that contain a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protective “capsid” protein sheath, and can only reproduce within a host cell.
Aerobic Growing, living, or occurring in the presence of air
Airborne Precautions CDC guidelines for reducing the risk of airborne transmission of pathogens
Anaerobic Growing, living, or occurring in the absence of air
Asepsis The removal of all pathogens from a surface
Autoclave A machine that sterilizes objects with steam under pressure
Chain of Infection Chain describing how pathogens are transmitted
Chemical Disinfection Using chemicals to disinfect items
Clean Free of visible dirt or grime
Communicable Disease A disease that can infect another person
Contact Precautions Standard precautions for preventing the transmission of pathogens through direct/indirect contact
Contaminated Surface with pathogens
Disinfection Destroying or preventing the development of potentially harmful microorganisms
Droplet Precautions CDC Guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens via droplets produced by talking, coughing, sneezing, etc. through exposure
Endogenous Disease originating inside body (e.g. cancer).
Exogenous Disease originating outside body (e.g. pathogen).
Fomites Items that have been in contact with a host of an infectious disease, that could possibly carry the pathogen, e.g. clothes, sheets
Hepatitis B Hepatitis transmitted by exposure to blood or bodily fluids.
Hepatitis C Hepatitis transmitted by blood.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Disease caused by HIV, that suppresses immune system significantly
Mode of Transmission How a pathogen is transmitted (inhalation, ingestion, etc.)
Nonpathogens Microorganisms that aren’t disease-producing.
Nosocomial Hospital-acquired.
Opportunistic A microorganism that normally isn’t harmful, but harms susceptible hosts.
Pathogens Disease-producing microorganism
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE’s) Attire that’s part of standard precautions, designed and worn to prevent exposure to pathogens when in contact with patient or their fluids
Portal of Entry Where a pathogen enters a new host
Portal of Exit Where a pathogen leaves its reservoir
Protective (Reverse) Isolation Protecting a susceptible host from pathogens carried by the environment and staff
Reservoir The organism in which a pathogen resides
Standard Precautions CDC-recommended guidelines for reducing the risk of pathogen transmission in healthcare facilities
Sterile Describing a surface that all microorganisms have been removed from
Sterile Field An area that is totally sterilized, with all healthcare workers in sterile garments
Sterilization The process of destroying all microorganisms on a surface or device
Susceptible Host A host who, for various reasons, is more susceptible to contract a disease
Transmission-based Isolation Isolating patients who are suspected of being hosts of a communicable disease
Bio-Hazard Biological organisms that threaten the health of humans
Created by: brandon2000