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Chapter 6 A&P

dem bones

TermDefinition
Closed Fracture fx that does not puncture the skin - aka simple fracture
Open Fracture fx that penetrates the skin aka compound fracture
Greenstick Fracture incomplete fx - breaks on one side but not the other
Hairline Fracture stress fx - slight fx that does not affect bone alignment
Ossifcation formation of a bone
medial malleolus inside ankle bone
lateral malleolus outside ankle bone
acromion spoon-shaped projection of the scapula
cheek bone zygomatic bone
kneecap patella
lower jaw bone mandible - only bone in skull that moves
forehead frontal
tail bone coccyx
thigh bone femur - longest, strongest, heaviest bone in body
heel bone calcaneus
collar bone clavicle
spine vertebrae - back bone
breast bone sternum
bone process projections off the bones
mastoid process large projection of the temporal bone (behind ear)
laminectomy removal of a portion of the vertebrae
spongy bone cancellous or trabecular bone
club foot talipes equinovarus
fontanel soft spot - space between cranial bones in an infant
foramen hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
condyle knuckle-like projection at the end of a bone
carpals bones of the wrist - 8 in total
bone depression concave areas or openings in a bone help form joints or serve as points of attachment for muscle
trochanter large bony process located below the neck of the femur
Diaphysis main shaft-like portion of a long bone
epiphysis located at each end of the bone
epiphyseal line layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis - growth plate (ossification - when it solidifies)
spine sharp projections from the surface of a bone
hyoid bone point of attachment for muscles of the tongue and throat
cervical vertebrae first segment of the vertebral column C1-C7
thoracic vertebrae second segment of vertebral column T1-T12
lumbar vertebrae third segment of the vertebral column L1-L5
sacrum fourth segment of the vertebral column - triangular shaped bone that is made up of five fused bones
coccyx fifth segment of the vertebral column - tail bone - made up of four fused bones
spinous process projecting from the midline of the back of the vertebral arch
transverse process extends laterally from the vertebral arch
three parts of the sternum manubruium, body, xiphoid process
three kinds of ribs true, false, floating
true ribs the first seven pairs of ribs that attach to the sternum in the front and the vertebrae in the back
false ribs ribs 9-10 - connect in back to the vertebrae and to sternum in front by cartilage
floating ribs ribs 11-12 - only attached to vertebrae in the back -
costal cartilage extends from each individual rib - attaches to sternum
intercoastal spaces spaces between the ribs
scoliosis abnormal lateral (left or right) curvature of a portion of the spine
kyphosis abnormal outward curvature of the portion of the spine commonly known as humpback or hunchback
lordosis abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine swayback
complete fracture break that extends through the entire thickness of the bone
compression fracture cause by bone surfaces being forced against each other
impacted fracture the force of the break causes the broken end of the smaller bone to be jammed into the broken end of the larger bone
comminuted fracture the force is so great that the bone is splintered or crushed - closed fx but would need open reduction repair
Colles' fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1" of the wrist
pathological fracture occurs when a bone is weakened by a preexisting disease (such as osteoporosis)
open reduction surgical to repair fractures
closed reduction aligning fractured bones through manual manipulation
red marrow where blood formation occurs
periosteum thick white fibrous membrane that covers the surface of long bones
osteoblasts immature bone cells
osteoclasts large cells that absorb bony tissue
sesamoid irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a joint kneecap
osteocytes mature bone cells
articular cartilage covers joint surfaces
yellow marrow stores fat
spongy bone cancellous bone (travecular)
fissure groove or depression in bone
sinus hollow space in a bone
fossa hollow or shallow concave depression in bone
maxilla upper jaw bones
sutures immovable joints (fibrous)
innominate bone bone formed from the fusion of the ilium, ishchum, pubis and hip bone
osteomalacia abnormal softening of the bones - known in children as rickets
osteomyelitis infection of the bone and bone marrow - spread to the bone tissue through blood
osteoporosis porous bones - bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density - greater susceptibility to fractures
osteochondroma most common benign bone tumor
Created by: gcjlentz