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GEO451 Midterm

planning-Levy plan (v): effort to define systematically and think through problems to improve the quality of decision making
planning- randolph planning is figuring out what needs to be done and how to do it. it is the process of applying knowledge to action or basic problem solving
planning-cullingworth planning is a purposive process in which goals are set, and policies elaborated to implement them
why do we need to plan? - interconnectedness—everything is linked to everything else - complexity—surpass individual comprehension/management
land use management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods
what do planners do (in growing community) - shape pattern of growth - separate incompatible land uses and activities - locate public facilities - economic development
what do planners do (in a community that isn't growing) - preserve historic buildings - improve streets - provide housing for low income residents - fix problems from previous plans (or lack of)
who are planners part-time board; small/large planning departments, professional organizations
what skills do planners have political smarts, good communication, patience
rationalism (high, high) - analyze system and problems - layout alternative solutions - evaluate possible consequences of ea. solution - recommend best alternative - implementation - pros: research based; theory - cons: use lots of resources; impractical
methodism - (low clarity of ends, high clarity of means/process) - "plan as blueprint"
utopianism - (high clarity of ends, low clarity of means) - “plan as vision” - kindle community’s imagination - ideas meant to reinvent city - rdg: bernum—chicago “make no little plans" - pro: public awareness - cons: public awareness
incrementalism low, low - rdg: no policy is perfect so tweak, wait, tweak, wait—muddle through - pros: cost effective, less opportunity to make massive harm, focus on smaller stakeholder groups with each tweak - cons: slow process; use current policy; reactionary
elements that indicate a city - lots of land, low populations, - land granted by sovereignty, autonomous municipalities, limited govt. resources, - development controlled by grantee
census definition of "urban" 50,000 or more people
spanish (saint augustine, santa fe)
french quebec, new orleans)
dutch hudson valley, new amsterdam)
english boston, philadelphia, savannah)
legacy of early planning attempts on planning today “..common desire for openness observed was easily achievable because American cities lack walls.”-focus on the home
forces behind urban growth - mercantile to industrial city - econ. transformation—artisan to industrial production - social change—rapid immigration - transportation innovation - changing urban structure—functional segregation; congestion
urban US history explains modern planning.... urban squalor--NY tenement acts, sanitary reform, public water supplies, public parks
people who had influence on urban planning as practice Olmstead, Pullman, Owen, howard, Olmstead jr., Burnham, Bennett
CP process mapping, visioning, goals/objectives, needs analysis, alternative scenarios, plan and policies development, implementations, continue planning
why is "comprehensive " in the name? geographical coverage, subject matter, time horizon
elements of a CP population, land use, housing, circulation/transportation, econ development, natural resources, cultural/historical resources
advantages of CP rational, legally sustainable
legal basis for planning law defines procedures, much of planning is administering laws, constitutional framework (5, 14)
key legal issues due process, "takings," exactions
who stakeholders
what what are you trying to do
when when will you hold public involvement sessions?
where where will you hold these
why why involve the public? gain support, counter opposition from start
how? charrettes, delphi process, fish bowls, participatory land use mapping, nominal group process
why is public involvement necessary for cp? gain support, deal with opposition
examples of public participation techniques charrettes, delphi process, fish bowls, participatory land use mapping, nominal group process
sittable space - flexible space for people to to sit in the front/back/sides of the space - provide movable seating
streets bring people to the plaza, surround the plaza, etc.
sun when comfortable temperature, people want to sit in the sun
water people like the look/sound/feeling of water—should be touchable
trees gives people chance to see some kind of nature, sit under them to escape the sun when it’s hot, gives them sense of privacy/security despite being in a very public space
food can be initial draw to the area, and the people who were drawn by the food will be a draw to more and more people
triangulation external stimulus provides social bond between people—something in the area will cause strangers to talk
example of research on urban design at the site level team of planners looked at why ppl were attracted to the plaza studied and not to others
cases in your experience that affirms - i like sitting in the sun, but also having things like trees to escape from it when it is too warm - it’s nice to be around water when enjoying time outside
cases in your experience that refutes i like secluded areas away from streets and the noise of vehicle traffic, but can understand why streets are so important to plazas in the middle of a city
what data collection methods did Whyte use? - direct observation - time lapse videos - interview
Created by: tallzy14