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EM week 12


List 2 types of seizure disorders: 1. Partial seizures 2. Generalized seizures
List 2 types of Generalized seizures: 1. Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure 2. Absence Seizures
What is the most common seizure? Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure (Grand mal epilepsy)
Define Absence Seizures: Patient can have many small seizures, abrupt onset (petit mall epilepsy)
What percent of diagnosed epilepsy is Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, and what is the percent for Absence Seizures? 1. 90% 2. 20%
Define Status Epilepticus: A seizure that persists for more than 1 hour or repeated seizures that produce a fixed and enduring epileptic condition for more than 1 hour
Define Convulsion: Intense, involuntary muscular contraction or a series of such contractions
Define Epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by sudden, convulsive seizures, with or without the loss of consciousness
Define Tonic: Continuous tension or contraction of muscles, as a convulsion or spasm
Define Clonic: Movement marked by relaxations of a muscle, after convulsion occurring in rapid succession
Define Stertorous: A heavy snoring inspiratory sound occurring in coma or deep sleep
Define Ictus: It is the actual seizure itself
List 4 characteristics of a tonic-clonic seizure: 1. Loss of consciousness 2. Tonic-Cloic phase 3. Stops in 5-15min. 4. Presence of an aura
List 4 characteristics of an Absence seizure: 1. Brief change in level of consciousness 2. Non-convulsive 3. 1-10 or 5-30sec. 4. Common in children
What is the most common seizure in children? Absence
List 3 causes of seizures: 1. Congenital 2. Trauma or Injury 3. Diseases
What is a Nonepileptic cause for a patient to have a seizure? Local anesthetic overdose is the most likely
What is the stipulation for a patient that has well controlled seizures to be considered an ASA II? No acute seizures within the past 3 months
If a patient has well controlled seizures by medication, but has had a seizure within 1 month, what ASA class are they placed in? ASA III
What is the ASA classification for a patient with a history of status epilepticus? ASA III-IV
List the 3 reasons a patient with seizures would be classified as ASA IV: 1. History of seizure activity 2. Poorly controlled by medication 3. Acute seizures within one week
List 2 types of Partial Seizures: 1. Simple partial 2. Complex partial
Define Simple Partial: Involve in One hemisphere
Define Complex Partial: Spreads to the opposite hemisphere
What are the 3 phases of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures? 1. Prodromal phase (aura) 2. Ictal phase (Toni, Clonic) 3. Postictal phase (recovery)
What type of Seizure is Life Threatening? Tonic-Clonic status epilepticus
Management: Absence and Partial Seizures- Step1: Recognition Step2: Stop Tx (List the last 4 Steps) Step3: Doc Stat Step4: Position(little time to modify) Step5: Reassure the Pt. Step6: Discharge patient and subsequent dental care
When should you summon medical assistance if a patient is have a seizure? After a seizure has lasted for 5 or more minutes
(Fill in the blanks) Management: Generalized Tonic-Clonic- Step1: Stop Tx Step2: Doc Stat Step3: Position(on floor if possible) Step4:________ Step5: A-B-C Step6: Definitive care, -A:______ -B:______ -C:______ Step4: Consider summoning EMS-seek help from family member to evaluate seizure –A: Prevention of injury –B: Administration of oxygen –C: Monitor vitals
What position should a patient be placed in during the postictal phase: Supine
Created by: Sandys