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Chapter 6

Skin and Body Membranes

adip(o) fatty
cuatne(o) skin
dermat(o), derm(o), -derm, -derma skin
hidr(o) sweat, sweatglands
ichthy(o) fish, scaly
kerat(o) horny tissue
lip(o) fatty
melan(o) black, very dark
myc(o) fungus
onych(o) nail
pil(o) hair
seb(o) sebum, sebaceous glands
steat(o) fat
trich(o) hair
xanth(o) yellow
xer(o) dry
integumentary system the skin or integument, hair, nails, sweat glands (sudoiferous glands) and the sebaceous glands. This system also protects the body, regulate tempurate, excretes some body waste and the sensors for pain and sensation.
The skin or () is the largest body organ. The average adult has about 21.5 square feet of skin. It varies in thickness depending on what part of the body it covers and what its function is in covering that part integument
The skin has three main parts of layers: the (), the () and the () or () Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous layer or Hypodermis
The epidermis: the () layer of skin, ranges from 1/200 to 1/20 of an inch thick, and consists of several () outer, strata
The epidermis is made up of cells called (), a flat, scaly layer of cells. The layers that make up the squamous epithelium are called: Squamous epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium
The top sublayer is called the () stratum corneum
A waterproof battier that keeps microorganisms out and mositure in. Keratin
The bottom layer of the epidermis is the () stratum germinativum
Specialized cells called () produce a pigment called () which helps determine skin and hair color melanocytes, melanin
The connective tissue is composed of () fibers that form a strong elastice network collagen
When collagen fibers wstretch, they form () or stretch marks striae
The subcutaneous layer that is between the dermis and the body;s inner organs, it consists of () or fatty tissue and some layers of fibrous tissue () adipose
Hair has two parts. The () protrudes from the skin and the () lies beneath the surface of the skin hair shaft, hair root
Hair grows upward from the root through the (tubular sacs that hold the hair fibers). The shape of the follicle determines the shape of the hair (straight, curly, wavy). hair follicle
Hair color is determined by the presence of melanin, which is produced by the in the epidermis. Gray hair occurs when melanocytes stop producing melanin. melanocyte
Hair growth, thickness, and curliness are generally determined by heredity. In addition to heredity, baldness or may result from disease, injury, or medical treatment (such as chemotherapy). alopecia
A general term for removal of hair by the roots is or . Such removal may be the result of some kind of injury or it may be done voluntarily to remove unwanted hair. epilation [ep-ə-lā-shən], depilation [dep-ə-lā-shən]
() are plates made of hard keratin that cover the dorsal surface of the distal bone of the fingers and toes. Nails serve as protective covering, help us grasp objects, and allow us to scratc Nails
Healthy nails appear pinkish because the translucent nail covers vascular tissue. At the base of most nails, a , or whitish half-moon, is an area where keratin and other cells have mixed with air. lunula [LŪ-nū-lă]
Nails are surrounded by a narrow band of epidermis called a , except at the top. The top portion grows above the level of the finger. cuticle [KYŪ-tĭ-kl]
The (also called sudoriferous glands). Glands that secrete outward toward the surface of the body through ducts are called () The excretion of sweat is called () sweat glands exocrine [K-sō-krĭn] glands diaphoresis [DĪ-ă-fō-RĒ-sĭs] pores [pōrs]
() or small sweat glands, are found on many places of the body. They excrete a colorless fluid that keeps the body at a constant temperature. eccrine [K-rĭn] glands
() are specialized glands in the surface of the ear that secretes cerumen, a waxy substance that lubricates and protects the ear. ceruminous [sĕ-RŪ-mĭn-ŭs] glands
() located in the dermis, secrete an oily substance called () which is found at the base of the hair follicles. This substance serves to lubricate and protect the skin. sebaceous [sĕ-BĀ-shŭs] glands sebum [SĒ-bŭm]
Excessive accumulation of body fat is () osis. adip- [,ad-ə-'pō-səs]
() itis is inflammation of the skin. dermat- [,dər-mə-'tīt-əs]
Surgical procedure to remove acne scars and marks using an abrasive product to remove part of the skin is abrasion. derm- [,dər-mə-'brā-zhən]
Production and excretion of sweat is ()osis. hidr- [hid-'rō-səs]
() osis is a congenital skin disorder characterized by dryness and peeling. ichthy- [,ik-thē-'ō-səs]
()osis is a skin lesion covered by a horny layer of tissue. kerat- [,ker-ə-'tō-səs]
Removal of unwanted fat by suctioning through tubes placed under the skin is ()suction. lipo- [lip-uh-suhk-shuhn]
()oma is a malignancy arising from cells that form melanin. melan- [,mel-ə-'nō-mə]
Any condition caused by fungus is ()osis. myc- [mī-'kō-səs]
() tomy is an incision into a nail. onycho- [ŏn'ĭ-kŏt'ə-mē]
Relating to a skin cyst with hair is ()cystic. pilo- [pī'lō-sĭs'tĭk]
() rrhea is excessive sebum caused by overactivity of the sebaceous glands. sebo- [seb-uh-ree-uh]
Inflammation of fatty tissue is ()itis steat- [,stē-ə-'tīt-əs]
()pathy is a disease of the hair. tricho- [trĭ-kŏp'ə-thē]
A yellow growth or discoloration of the skin is ()oma. xanth- [zan-thoh-muh]
Excessive dryness of the skin is ()derma. xero- [zeer-uh-dur-muh]
The field of studies, diagnoses, and treats ailments of the skin. The first diagnostic test is usually visual observation of the surface of the skin. dermatology
Once a visual assessment has been made, the dermatologist determines which procedures and tests will help find the underlying cause of a skin problem. Samples of or pus may be sent to a laboratory for examination. exudate
The calls for placing a suspected antigen on a piece of gauze and applying it to the skin. If a reaction results, the test is considered positive patch test
The involves scratching a suspected antigen onto the skin. Redness or swelling within ten minutes indicates a positive reaction. scratch test
In the a suspected antigen is injected between layers of skin. Infectious diseases may also be detected by this type of test. Some common intradermal tests include the following: intradermal test
The or is used for diagnosing tuberculosis. In this test, is injected intradermally. The (also called the ), a screening test for tuberculosis (TB), injects the tuberculin using a tine (an instrument with a number of pointed ends). Mantoux [măn-TŪ] test Purified protein derivative (PPD) test tine [tīn] test TB tine
The skin is a place where abnormalities occur and where some internal diseases show dermatological symptoms. () are areas of tissues that are altered because of a pathological condition. lesions [LĒ-zhŭnz]
Primary lesions appear on previously normal skin. Secondary lesions are abnormalities that result from changes in primary lesions. are blood vessel lesions that show through the skin. vascular [VĂS-kyū-lăr] lesions
Created by: dkeller4150ob