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DU PA Surg final red

Duke PA Surgery Final The Red Stuff

where does atherosclerosis and PVD typically occur at bifurcations
diabetics will often have ABI >1 due to __ calcified noncompressible vessels
patients with lower extremity amputations are at high risk of death from __ MI
above the knee amupation is contraindicated if __ below the knee amputation is possible
symptoms that occur with blockage in the vertebrobasilar arterial distribution diplopia, syncope, vertigo, dizziness
symptoms that occur with blockage in the vertebrobasilar arterial distribution do not occur with __ carotid artery disease
the test of choice for carotid artery disease duplex scanning
what is duplex scanning combination of ultrasound and pulsed wave doppler
leading cause of postop death in CEA cardiac complications
indication for AAA repair any patient with >5cm diameter without increased operative risk or other pathologic process which decreases life expectance
five P's of acute arterial occlusion pain, pallor, pulselessness, poikilothermia, paresthesias/paralysis
what is the management of 75% of symptomatic carotid stenosis CEA (carotid endarterectomy)
risk factors for atherosclerosis smoking, HTN, diabetes
cause of amaurosis fugax embolization via retinal artery
is a transient monocular visual loss amaurosis fugax
treatment of AAA rupture surgery
treatment of lower extremity rest pain angiogram and bypass surgery
treatment of stable claudication lifestyle modification
to be considered stable angina it must be unchanged in pattern for __ four to six weeks
to be unstable angina it must be new onset, angina at rest, crescendo angina, not associated with exertion
what do you do if there is left main coronary artery disease perform a CABG
when selecting conduits for CABG remember that the __ is best with 90-95% 10yr patency internal mammary
in aortic stenosis do valve replacement if there are __ symptoms, gradient >50mm Hg and AVA <.75 cm2, LV function
late symptoms of aortic insufficiency water hammer pulse and widened pulse pressure
ausculatory finding in mitral stenosis opening snap and apical crescendo with diastolic rumble
best screening test for aortic dissection TEE (transesophageal echocardiography)
when selecting conduits for CABG __ can be used and has a 54% 10 year patency saphenous vein
75% of cardiac tumors are benign and diagnosed with echo
pericarditis is diagnosed with echo
MRI's are not best for __ defining anatomy
atrial septal defect may present with __ and have heart failure systolic murmurs
VSD presents with __, heart failure and is frequently seen in infancy holosystolic murmur
AV septal defect can cause right sided congestion which may lead to hepatomegaly
patent ductus arteriosus presents with __ continuous precordial murmur(machinery)
what is truncus arteriosus when a single trunk form heart supplying systemic and pulmonary circulation as well as a VSD
in the case of truncus arteriosus the associated VSD will present with systolic thrill, and prominent apical pulse
what is tetrology of fallot pulmonary stenosis, VSD, overriding aorta, and RV hypertrophy.
how will tetrology of fallot present a harsh systolic precordial murmur
coarctation of the aorta presents with differential HTN and pulses
mitral valve diseases are __ very rare
what can you ad to lidocaine injection to decrease some of the pain sodium bicarbonate
what is the concern when using local anesthetics neuro and cardio toxicity
what is a felon (don't say someone who commits a felony) an infection of the terminal phalanx
what can a felon cause osteomyelitis
what is the most important factor when deciding to close a wound the age of the wound
generally don't close a wound that is >__hours old 24
shoulder pain is commonly caused by impingement of the acromion, coracoacromial ligament, AC joint and the coracoid process on __ underlying subacromial bursa, rotator cuff, and biceps tendon
how do you begin to treat rotator cuff tendonitis physical therapy and NSAIDS
what do you do if you are treating rotator cuff tendonitis with physical therapy and NSAIDS and there is no improvement after 4-6 weeks consider subacromial cortisone injection
what do you do if you have been treating rotator cuff tendonitis with subacromial cortisone injection and there is no improvement after 6 weeks consider arthroscopy with subacromial decompression
what is the single most sensitive and specific exam finding for a rotator cuff tear weakness with resisted external rotation and or abduction
most important divider in the cranium tentorium
supratentorial tumors have __ potential seizure
neurosurgery study of choice for establishing diagnosis MRI
study of choice to check for mets CT of chest, abdomen, pelvis
what is medically intractable epilepsy requires that a patient has failed two medications
surgery offers up to an__% cure rate for epilepsy 85
most common surgery to cure epilepsy temporal lobectomy (non-dominant lobe)
__ test is used to determine risk to language centers when doing brain surgery WADA
what is status epilepticus an emergency when a seizure is ongoing for thirty minutes without stopping, or has multiple seizures in succession without sensorium returning to normal
__ may block arachnoid villi causing hydrocephalus and associated with aneurysm subarachnoid hemorrhage
subarachnoid hemorrhages are classified by __ fisher and hunter scales
growth of teh skull is driven by growth of the brain
myelomeningocele is diagnosed on ultrasound by __ and is best treated by adding oranges, apples, and various other fruits to make a tasty salad lemon sign, banana sign
myelomeningocele is associated with __ and is a surgical emergency best when a planned c-section is done hydrocephalus
one of the most important cytokines is IL-2
what are the two pathways of allogenic recognition direct and indirect
there are different types of drug for __, use a different one in the OR vs what is used for maintenance immunosuppression
Created by: bwyche