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MSII-Immune N.1

Immune notes part 1 of 3

Immunity: the body’s specific protective response to invading foreign agent or organism The body protects itself using a_________________ system: layered defense
***The immune system must distinguish between________ (normal components of the body) and_____________ (foreign tissues or substances). In some cases, this mechanism is faulty and the body destroys its own cells Self and non self
A pathogen is a type of antigen? true or false True
***The body’s immune system includes the_______________, ___________ organs, and the ___________________ phagocyte system bone marrow, lymphoid organs, and mononuclear
Primary functions of the immune system include defense, homeostasis, and ______________________ surveillance
***What kills diseased cells (especially those infected with __________) Homeostasis; viruses
Consist of the thymus gland, lymph nodes, tonsils and adenoids, and spleen Lymphoid tissue
***Lymphoid tissue Consist of the _________________, ________________, ____________________, and ________________________ thymus gland, lymph nodes, tonsils and adenoids, and spleen
Is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system within the thymus, _____________________mature Thymus Gland; T lymphocytes
They are the First line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens Tonsils and Adenoids
****Lymphocytes are the______________________ of the immune system; they alone have the ability to recognize for substances in the body cornerstone
****Lymphocytes formed in the__________________and ______________ are able to transform into specialized cells called B cells and T cells. What are the bone marrow and lymphatic tissues ,
****B cells provide _________________________ by reacting to the presence of antigens to produce antibodies What is humoral immunity
These proliferate at the direction of thymic hormones, attack infected cells and provide What are T cells, cell-mediated (cellular) immunity
The B cell recognizes _____________________________ without antigen processing. Each specific B cell recognizes a specific antibody whole pathogens
An antigen (Ag) is any foreign substance or molecule entering the body that_____________________________________ (the activity of B or T lymphocytes) stimulates an immune response
***An antibody (Ab), also known as an__________________, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses immunoglobulin (Ig)
***B lymphocytes are responsible for_______________________, All antibodies are contained in a portion of the blood plasma called the gamma globulin fraction antibody production.
***IgG (75% of Total Immunoglobulin) Neutralizes bacterial toxins , accelerated phagocytosis
IgE (0.004% of Total Immunoglobulin) Releases histamine in allergic, inflammatory response
T cells enable the body to differentiate between “self’ and “non-self.” This function can become a problem, for example when T cells cause tissue or organ _________________. This is because T cells recognize these tissues as “non-self” and work to elimin rejection after transplantation
Release__________________ , which help macrophages and also increase the killer T cells to do their work. They also help to activate antibody-producing B cells. Helper T cells; cytokines
Natural Killer cells are considered___________________ in immune response. “nonspecific”
Proteins that act as _________________to help regulate some of the functions of lymphocytes and macrophages during the immune response. Cytokines; messengers
The skin provides a _______________________ and secretes enzymes that kill or reduce the virulence of bacteria physical barrier
Mechanical reactions, such as__________or ____________, help remove pathogenic material coughing or sneezing
Chemical barriers, such as the __________________________of the GI system, neutralize or kill microorganisms normal flora (microorganisms)
______________and_______________ intensify the effects of interferons, inhibit the growth of some microbes, and speed up body reactions, aiding in tissue repair Fever and inflammation
****_________________________ are considered the final line of defense against disease Specific immunity
Natural immunity: ____________________________ to any foreign invader Innate: Native or Natural Resistance nonspecific response
Acquired or adaptive immunity is attained through natural or artificial sources. Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be attained either _____________________or_____________________. actively or passively
Individuals can also develop acquired immunity during their lives as they are exposed to disease-causing organisms. They do not necessarily have to become ill with the disease; they build up immunity slowly. In other words, acquired immunity is built on lifetime exposures
Artificially acquired immunity occurs when a person is _________________________ exposed to a causative agent deliberately
Artificially acquired active immunity occurs through an injection of the causative agent (antigen) into the person’s system This is called_________, ___________or __________________; the substance injected is called a vaccine vaccination, inoculation, or immunization
An attenuated vaccine is a vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it _________________. Attenuation takes an infectious agent and alters it so that it becomes harmless or less virulent viable (or "live")
These vaccines contrast to those produced by "killing" the virus or ___________________ (inactivated vaccine)
A vaccine boosts the immune system by offering a weak form of an infection that the body can fight off and can________________ how to combat when a more virulent form presents itself "remember”
****It is the_____________________ reaction in the body by which the body is protected from complex foreign molecules, such as pathogens and their chemical toxins. In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to f fundamental
Question: Is the following true or false? Immunity refers to the body’s nonspecific protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism. False; Immunity refers to the body’s specific, not nonspecific, protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism.
There are three types of immunological disorders Hypersensitivity Autoimmune disease Immunodeficiency
Auto immune reaction_______________________________by immune system of body’s own tissues. (Examples: rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia.) Malfunctioning or misinterpretation
Auto immune reaction. Mast cells are formed in connective tissue and mucous membranes. They help regulate the _____________________ (mostly in the situation of allergy and anaphylactic reactions. They contain histamine, heparin, and other substances inflammatory response
Immunodeficiency Disorders are when the Immune system is compromised and does not function adequately to prevent infections. Some immune disorders, such as HIV and AIDS, take advantage of the immune system’s weaknesses and make themselves appear to be ___ a normal part of the body.
Effects of aging on the system . Older adults usually have a baseline body temperature lower than 98.6. Therefore, they do not always have a________________________ to infection Fever helps kill microorganisms febrile response
Immune PP #2 concentrate on slides: 3, 6, 8 (specifically WBC), 11, 13, 14, 17,
***Selected Medications can affect the immune system. Antithyroid drugs can cause agranulocytosis, and leukopenia ___________________ in large doses can cause Prostaglandin ***Synthesis or Release. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
***Selected Medications can affect the immune system.__________________________ can cause Immunosuppression Adrenal Corticosteroids, anti-neoplastic, anti-metabolites
***Autoimmune disorders affect people of both genders of all ages, ethnicities, and social classes. Can affect every cell in the bodythough______________________________________________________________________________________________ Women more prone to autoimmune disease: estrogen tends to enhance immunity. Androgen tends to be immunosuppressive
***CBC WBCs Normal Count: ? Decreased: ? Increased: ? 5,000 to 10,000 cells/mm3; Leukopenia ;Leukocytosis
***Neutrophil Normal Count: ? Decreased: ? Increased: ? 1800-7800 cells/mm3; Neutropenia; Left shift ( immature neutrophils)
***Lymphocyte Normal Count: ? Decreased: ? Increased:? 1000-4800 cells/mm3; leukemia, sepsis; infection, hepatitis, lymphomas
***ANA Titer Test Diagnosis the _______________and for the detection of anti-nucleoprotein factor and patterns associated with certain autoimmune diseases. rheumatic diseases
***The test is positive at a titer of 1:20 or 1:40, depending on the laboratory ***A _______________________________does not necessarily confirm a disease. positive result
***The____________________________ is positive in most individuals diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); it may also be positive in individuals with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) or rheumatoid arthritis. ANA titer
***An ANA titer result can be_____________________in some individuals. false positive
***Skin testing for ________________________________. Administered by patch, scratch, or intradermal techniques environmental and food allergens
***Skin Testing : Pre-procedure interventions: Instruct client to __________________________________therapy 5 days before the test as prescribe Obtain informed consent discontinue systemic corticosteroids or antihistamine
***Always have emergency equipment available during skin testing. Clients can have anaphylactic reactions from allergens Airway kit or cart Epinephrine (Epi Pen)
***Skin Testing Post-procedure interventions: record the site, date, time of test record the date and time of follow up site and reading have client remain in waiting room ________________________ after injections to monitor for adverse affects for at least 30 minutes
***Skin testing inspect site for erythema, papules, vesicles, edema, and a ____________________ wheal
***Measure flare along________________ the and document the size and other findings provide the client with a list of potential allergens, if identified. wheal
Created by: amberrasband