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Endocrine System

Hormones and Their Functions

Hormone A chemical signal that conveys messages to other human cells, telling them what to do or how to do it
Peptide Hormone A type of hormone that binds to receptors on a cell's surface & then activates a second messenger, which in turn activates an enzyme cascade, causing the cell to change its behaviour
cAMP Cyclic Amp, a common second messenger for peptide hormones.
Steroid Hormone A type of hormone that diffuses through plasma membrane, binds to receptors on the nucleus, and then activates a gene in the cell's DNA. This causes protein synthesis to occur, and then this causes a change in the cell's behaviour
Humoral Control Activation of a hormone through unbalanced body fluids: e.g insulin, activated by high blood glucose
Neural Control Activation of a hormone by the nervous system e.g. epinephrine
Hormonal Control Activation of a hormone by another hormone e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, activate thyroid gland
Another name for the Pituitary Gland hypophysis
Another name for the Posterior Pituitary Gland Neurohypophysis
Another name for the Anterior Pituitary Gland adenohypophysis
Hormones Secreted by the Posterior Pituitary Gland ADH (antidiuretic hormone), oxytocin
ADH Function Antidiuretic hormone increases blood pressure by vasoconstriction and causes the kidneys to reabsorb water
Oxytocin Is used during childbirth, and is stimulated by a positive feedback system.
Hormones Secreted by the Anterior Pituitary ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), prolactin, growth hormones, gonadotropic hormones (testosterone, progesterone, estrogen)
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete hormones
Prolactin stimulates breast milk in females
Growth Hormone increase in height, increased fat/protein synthesis, calcium and bone mineralization
Gonadotropic Hormones sex hormones, pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone
Thyroid Gland Gland that is located in neck, and relies largely on iodine, hormones function to increase metabolic rates
Triiodothyronine A hormone secreted by thyroid gland, made up of 3 molecules of iodine (T3)
Thyroxine A hormone secreted by thyroid gland, made up of 4 molecules of iodine (T4)
Lack of Iodine Simple/Endemic goiter, a lump in the throat
Congenital Hypothyroidism Failure of thyroid gland to develop properly, leads to short, stocky stature, myxedema (weight gain, hair loss, lethargy)
Grave's Disease (hyperthyroidism) exophthalmic goiter forms
Calcitonin Produced in high blood calcium, causes bones to take up calcium, lowering blood calcium levels
Parathyroid Glands & Parathyroid Hormone PTH (parathyroid hormone) increases blood calcium level by causing the bones to release calcium, and the kidneys and small intestine to absorb calcium
Hypocalcemia Low blood calcium level caused by insufficient parathyroid hormone, can lead to tetany & seizures
Hypercalcemia High blood calcium caused by too much PTH, can lead to muscle weakness, abnormal heart rhythms, coma, renal failure
Adrenal Glands Glands sit atop of kidneys, each gland has 2 parts, adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
Adrenal Medulla under complete nervous control, medulla responds to stress temporarily (fight or flight system) by releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex cortex provides long term response for stress, releases 2 major types of hormones, glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, raises the blood glucose level by either promoting breakdown of amino acids or the breakdown of fatty acids
Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone is the most important of the mineralocorticoids
Renin - Angiotensin - Aldosterone System When blood pressure is low, renin is secreted from kidneys, turning angiotensin into angiotensin 1, into angiotensin 2, which constricts the arterioles, and activates aldosterone, which makes the kidneys reabsorb sodium
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH) ADH is the only hormone secreted by the heart, and is used to the lower the blood pressure, unlike the renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system.
Addison's Disease Hyposecretion of hormones or ineffective ACTH leads to Addison's disease, most often is fatal
Cushing's Syndrome Hypersecretion of hormones or the buildup of unused hormones can lead to Cushing's syndrome, diabetes mellitus, obese trunk, hypertension, edema
Created by: Lotus!