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Neuro Chapter 2

Cellular and Molecular Building Blocks

Neurons Nerve cells
Cell Theory All plants consised of small individual units called cells. 1838
What is the cell body called? Soma
What are the branches of neuron called? Neurites
Axon the neurite that convey info away usally the biggest
Dendrites conveys info towards the cell body
Synapses Where one neuron comes close or touches another and where communication between one neuron and another takes place
Synaptic Transmission The mechanism causes the process of communication
name two ways neurons are classified? What a neuron does and what a neuron looks like.
Name the types of neurons when classifying them with what they do? Sensory neurons, moter neurons, and interneurons (neurons who decide or neurons located in the brain or spinal cord)
Name the types of neurons when clssifying them with what they look like? Anaxonal, Monopolar, Bipolar, Multipolar
How many ways do neurons communicate and what are they? Two: Chemcial and electrical
What is the neuron that sends the message called? Presynaptic neurons
what is the neuron that receives the message called? postsynaptic neurons
What is a Synaptic cleft? The small gap between neurons
What is the differents between chemical and electrical synapses? chemical has a small synaptic cleft while electrical touches, chemical uses synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminals electric doesn't, chemical is polarized communication (can only go in one direction) electrical goes both ways.
What is a reciprocul synapses? two chemical synapses immediately adjacent to one another with one transmitting info one way and the other the other way.
Glia or neuroglia cells are? non-neural
What are the 4 types of glia? Astroglia, Microglia, Oligodendroglia, and Schwann cells
Which glia are only found in the brain and spinal cord? Astroglia, Microglia, Oligodendroglia
Which glia are only found in the peripheral nerves? Schwann cells
What do Astrocytes do? provide physical support for neurons and help regulate the extracellular concentration of potassium ions. They also may play a role in neuronal communication.
What do Microglial do? Seem to have a defensive function by consuming cellular debris stemming from injury or disease.
What is different about Microglial than other glia? They develop from mesodermal rather than ectodermal tissue.
What is Myelin? a membrane that is wrapped tightly several times around most axons and long dendrites in the nervous system.
What is the color of Myelin? Shiny white
What does Myelin do? acts as a electrical insulator to increase the speed of conduction of nerve impulses.
What is a Node of Ranvier? the gap that seporates myelin bundles from each other.
What are the two glia that form myelin? Schwann and oligodendrocytes
What is the cell membrane of a neuron mostly composed of? Phospholipids and proteins
What does phospholipids consist of? hydrophilic(water seeking)the head and hydrophobic(water avoiding)fatty acid tails
What does the phospholipids do in the membrane? it makes the membrane impermeable to ions and allows proteins to move around.
What does the movement of proteins do for the cells? it allows the cell to respond to external chemical signals
What is the membrane referred to? the lipid bilayer
What percent of the membrane is protein? 20%
What part of the membrane of a typical neuron confers many of it's characteristics that distinguish it from other types of cells? the protein
How does a neuron change it's own functional characteristics? by changing the types of proteins it contains
What are the types of proteins are there? transport, signaling, and miscellaneous(binding)
What do Transport Proteins do? it allows or facilitate the movement of water, water-soluble ions, and other substances into or out of the cell
what do Signaling Proteins do? they receive or espond to chemical messages coming from outside the neuron
What do Binding Proteins do? they help bind cells to one another or to an extra cellular matrix of molecules that is present around some cells.
What are Transport Proteins made of? Ion Channel, Ion pump, and other transporters
What is an Ion Channel? it allows the passive flow of ions through the membrane.
What is an Ion Pump? expends energy to move one or more ions across the membrane against a concentration gradient
What are Signaling roteins mostly made up of? Receptors, G Protein, Other enzymes
What are Receptors? Binds with a signaling molecule and initiates the neuron's response
What are G Protiens? Initiates a cascade of biochemical reactions that leads to a neuron's response to a signaling molecule.
What are Binding Proteins mostly made up of? Adhesion Proteins and Cytoskeletal Binding Proteins
What are Adhesion Proteins? They anchor the neuron to other cells
What are Cytoskeletal Binding Proteins? They anchor the cell membrane to internal cytoskeleton
What do Ion Channels look like? They are cylindrical with a central core through which the ions flow.
How large are the typical Ion channels? 0.3 to 0.6nm in diameter
What are the chemically similar subunits of an ordinary ion channel made up of? Transmembrane domains
What are Transmembrane Domains? they are helical strands that cross the membrane of the cell
What are Transmembrane Domains connected by? Amino Acids
What confers the Channel it's specific properties? The Amino Acids
What are the types of ways that ions can move through a channel? Leakage Channels and Gated Channels
What is a Leakage Channel? ion channels that are open to the flow of ions all the time.
What are Gated Channels they open and close.
how do the Gated Channels open and close? a charge in the structure of the channel protein called conformational charge.
What is a Conformational Charge? it opens and closes the gate of the channel.
Can channels have more than one gate? yes
What are the types of Gates? Ligand-gated channel or ligand-sensitive channel, voltage-gated channel or voltage-sensitive channel, and stretch-sensitive channel
How does the Ligand-Gated Channel or Ligand-Sensitive Channle open and close? The presence of a particular kind of signaling molecule by opening and closing only in the presence of it.
How does the Voltage-Gated Channel or Voltage-Sensitive Channel opne and close? regulated by the difference in electrical potential across the neuronal membrane
How does the Stretch-Sensitive Channel open and close? When a mechanical force is applied to it.
What are Connexons? a specialized channel that forms gap junctions
How many Connexons are typically i a synapse? as many as 100 tightly packed pairs
What do the tightly packed connexons do? They connect the interiors of two adjacent neurons
What are the Connexons made up of? 6 parts called Connexins
What do the Connexins do? they twist to open and close the central pore.
What makes the Connexins do what they do? the presence or absence of specific chemical signals
Created by: Seanmorrone