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Ch 21 Orthopedic SG

Notes from ST for the ST

Type of popular, inexpensive, lightweight casting material fiberglass
4 muscles of the rotator cuff infraspinatus, teres minor, subscarpularis, and supraspinatus
3 types of traction manual, skin, skeletal
commonly used hemostatic agents in orthopedic surgery gelfoam, avitene, thrombin, and bone wax
What are some instruments used for taking a graft? gouges, osteotomes, curettes, mallet
hard, dense tissue of bone that surrounds the marrow cavity compact/cortical bone
found at the ends of bone and lining the medullary marrow cancellous or spongy bone
a semisolid tissue that is found in the spaces of cancellous bone bone marrow
Bones that are found within tendonsexamples: patella; the "ball" of the foot sesamoid (round) bones
Immovable synarthrosis
slightly movable amphiarthrosis
freely movable joint diarthrosis
moving a body part away from the midline of the body abduction
moving a body part toward the midline of the body adduction
Moving a particular body part in a circular path without moving the entire body part circumduction
movinga a body part around a central axis rotation
bending the foot upward at the ankle joint dorsiflexion
bending the foot downward at the ankle joint plantar flexion
bending a joint flexion
straightening a joint extension
cells that are responsible for the breakdown and reabsorption of bone osteoclast
abnormal stiffness or fixation of a joint usually resulting from the destruction of articular cartilage as occurs in rheumatoid arthritis ankylosis
pain in a joint arthralgia
puncture of a joint with a needle to withdraw synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid due to trauma or infection arthrocentesis
surgical fusion of a joint arthrodesis
surgical reconstruction and/or replacement of a joint to restore movement arthroplasty
surgical procedure in which the interior of a joint is visualized through the use of an endoscope inserted through a small incision arthroscopy
fracture of the epiphysis of the radius approximately one inch from the wrist joint causing the hand to be displaced in a dorsal and lateral position colles fracture
surgical removal of the posterior arch of the vertebra called the lamina to reduce pressure on a nerve root laminectomy
inflammation of bone and cartilage osteochondritis
formation of bone osteogenesis
genetic and congenital condition that involves the defective development of connective tissue resulting in deformed and abnormally brittle bones that are easily fractured osteogenesis imperfecta
tumor of the bone osteoma
softening of the bone osteomalacia
inflammation and infection of the bone and bone marrow usually caused by bacteria (staph) osteomyelitis
destruction and death of bone tissue osteonecrosis
excessive loss in calcium from bone without replacement osteoporosis
cutting or sawing in the bone osteotomy
surgical removal of the synovial of a joint synovectomy
What is the largest and most complex of the synovial joints? knee
What is pronation? Pointing a body part downward
supination? Pointing a body part upward
Know examples of a cartilaginous joint. Intervertebral disk
fracture of the fibula near the ankle, often accompanied by a break in the medial malleolus of the tibia and/or rupture of the internal lateral ligament Potts fracture
an angulated fracture of the distal radius at the epiphysis approximately 1 inch from the wrist joint Colles’ Fracture
Transverse fracture through the neck of the femur Transcervical Fracture
Which bone articulates with the distal tibia and fibula? Talus bone
Where is the medial malleolus? At its distal end, the tibia expands to form a prominence on the inner ankle called the medial malleolus.
Where is the sacroiliac joint? Between the sacrum at the base of the spine and the ilium of the pelvis. Posteriorly, the ilium joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint.
What is at the anterior portion of the coxal bone? pubis
What articulates with the head of the femur? acetabulum
Which bone articulates with the glenoid cavity to form the shoulder joint? humerus
The end of which bone articulates with the manubrium? Clavicle
What articulates with the distal clavicle and provides attachments for muscles of the arms and chest? Acromion process
What medical term is used to refer to the first seven rib pairs? true
Which bones are attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae? ribs
What is the initial step in the body's repair of a fracture? Blood clot
Which type of cells break down and assimilate bone? osteoclasts
Where are osteocytes located? They are located in minute bony chambers called lacuna.
What are the distal and proximal ends of long bones called? epiphyses
Which bone is posterior to the mandible and anterior to the trachea? hyoid
What is the name of the second cervical vertebra? Axis
During a total hip replacement surgery, which instrument is used to replace the femoral head? Intramedullary reamer
Where are Bone grafts usually taken from? Iliac crest
What is manipulating bone fracture fragments into alignment without incising the skin called? Closed reduction
What are the clinical signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome? Numbness of fingers
What does ORIF stand for? Open Reduction Internal Fixation
What is the process of using screw and plate geometry to apply forces at a fracture site called? Dynamic compression
What is the correct sequence of surgical instruments for the insertion of a bone screw? Drill, depth gauge, tap, screw
Which suture can be used to attach tendon to bone? polyester
What is the primary reason for performing a total joint arthroplasty? Degenerative joint disease
Which instrument is used to prepare the acetabulum? reamer
On which bone is the chamfer cut performed during a total knee arthroplasty? femur
How many components are implanted during a total knee arthroplasty? four
Which ligament originates from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and extends to the lateral condyle of the femur? Anterior cruciate
Which piece of equipment would not typically be used during a knee arthroscopy? insufflator
What can be used as an allograft for an ACL reconstruction? Tibialis anterior
Which procedure is performed to correct impingement syndrome? acromioplasty
During a rotator cuff repair, the suture anchor is placed into the bone and then it is passed through the ____. Torn tendon and tied
Femoral shaft fractures are immediately treated by _____. Surgical intervention
An ACL reconstruction is performed to repair the ____ stability of the knee. anterior
What is the primary purpose of meniscus surgery? To preserve as much of the torn meniscus as possible
What is a broach used for? To remove cancellous bone
What is contained in the pectoral girdle? Glenohumeral, sternoclavicular, and acromioclavicular(AC) joints
What is contained in the quadriceps? Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis
What is the name of the concave indentation that serves as the socket for the head of the femur? acetabulum
The acromion is part of which bone? clavicle
When is the pneumatic tourniquet routinely inflated? After exsanguination is accomplished
What can be used to reduce a fracture? traction
What chemical is also referred to as bone cement? methylmethacrylate
During an ACL reconstruction, which instrument might a surgeon use to remove excess bone from the femoral tunnel? Pituitary rongeur
In an ACL reconstruction, which device is used immediately following the insertion of the tibial guide? Guide pin
Which muscles are used for an autograft ACL reconstruction? Semitendinosus, gracilis
What two bones are involved in a patella tendon harvest for an ACL reconstruction? Tibia and patella
The goal of ulnar nerve transposition is to free the ulnar nerve from the? medial epicondyle groove and move it anteriorly.
What is a name given to a bunion repair? Keller Bunionectomy
Which medical condition is characterized by a lateral curvature of the spinal column and may require a posterior spinal fusion with the use of Harrington rods? scoliosis
Created by: kbrooke1985