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Pharmacology LPN

Routes, Classes

QuestionAnswer
Route of medication administration(Under the tongue) Sublingual
Route of medication administration(Allowed to dissolve on mucous membrane of cheek) Buccal
OD Right eye
OS Left eye
OU Both eyes
Injection into the fatty layer under the skin. Sites include upper abdomen, upper thigh, or lateral upper arm. Amounts are usually 0.5-1.5 Medication is to be absorbed slowly with prolonged effect. Subcutaneous
Good for poorly soluble drugs, irritating drugs, provides systemic effect Intramuscular
Provides rapid onset. Gives option of larger fluid volume therefore diluting irritating drugs, Amounts are usually over 5 ml Intravenous
Usually used for allergy or TB tests Inner aspect of arm is usual site Normally should not be over 0.1 ml Intradermal
Otic medications Adult ear canal should be pulled up and back
Otic medications Child ear canal should be pulled down and back
Patient should lie on left side for insertion and water-soluble lubricant should be used. suppositories
Tyramine containing foods cheese, red wine, beer, and yogurt
When taken with tyramine foods can cause severe hypertension MAO inhibitors
What do you assess the patient for (medication administration) 1. Food or drug allergies 2. past medical history and present condition 3. knowledge deficits and teaching needed
Suspension of fat globules in water emulsion
Drugs dissolved in alcohol tincture
liquid dispersion of drug for topical use lotion
Drug coated with substance that delays release of drug until it reaches the intestine (should not be crushed) enteric coated
Drug incorporated into a sugar or fruit base which will dissolve in the mouth Lozenge
Usually predictable, undesirable responses Side effects
Movement of drugs throughout the body. Four components: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion Pharmacokinetics
Process of moving a drug from the site of administration to the bloodstream. Absorption
How drugs are transported throughout the body. Distribution
Enzymatic alteration of drug structure, also known as biotransformation Metabolism
Primarily occurs in the liver Metabolism
Removal of drugs from the body. Usually occurs through the kidneys and urine. Excretion
Between minimum effective level and the toxic level Therapeutic range
The length of time the body takes to reduce the plasma level of a drug to 50% of its peak value. Duration of action for most drugs. Half-life
Reactive site on the surface or inside of a cell. Receptor
Drugs that bind to a receptor and cause effects that mimic normal cell activities. Agonists
Drugs that bind to a receptor and inhibit normal cell activities Antagonists
Drugs that attach, elicit some response, and also block other responses Partial agonists
Health history info., physical assessment data, lab values, medication effects Assessment related to medication administration
Most common nursing diagnosis related to medication administration Knowledge deficit, Noncompliance
Sympathetic NS mimics the "fight or flight" response selectively stimulating alpha & beta adrenergic receptors Includes vasoconstrictors (Norepinephrine) & Inotropes (Dopamine & Dobutrex)Increase HR and B/P Adrenergic
Dopamine involvement in CNS regulation, having a major effect on the akinesia of Parkinson's (Sinemet & Levodopa) Dopaminergic
Drugs that stimulate the PSNS by mimicking ACh. Promote muscle contraction & bladder emptying treating urinary retention. Side effects: abdominal cramps, salivation, N/V & diarrhea. Cholinergic drugs
Drugs that block or impede the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic receptors in the brain. Relax smooth muscles. Anticholinergic drugs
When two drugs with similar actions are given together. Ex. acetaminophen and oxycodone Additive effects
When two drugs administered together interact in such a way that their combined effects are greater than the sum of the effects for each drug given alone. Vistaril potentiates the effect of Demerol. Synergistic effects
Combination of two drugs results in drug effects that are less than the sum of the effects for each drug given separately. Beta blocker plus a beta stimulant cancel each other out. Antagonistic effects
Antibiotic: broad spectrum, gram +, first choice for meningitis, syphillis Penicillin's
Chemically very similar to Penicillin. If have allergic reaction to Penicillin can also have a reaction to this Cephalosporin's
Used to treat MRSA, adverse reaction includes ototoxicity, administer slowly, poorly absorbed orally Vancomycin
Used to treat GI infections, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Take on empty stomach, no milk products. Decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Tetracycline
Dilation of arteries and veins. Treat dopamine infiltration sites. Side effect: orthostatic hypotension. A-blocker Regitine
Vasoconstriction Alpha
Muscle activity Beta
Mycoardium, increased HR, increased contraction B1
Bronchial & Vascular smooth muscles: Bronchial relaxation and arterial dilation to skeletal muscles B2
Affects rate Chronotrope
Affects force of muscular contraction by activating beta cells Inotrope
The main clinical usage of calcium channel blockers Decrease blood pressure
Calcium channel blockers work by blocking voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in muscle cells of the heart and blood vessels. When Ca+ decreases, Blood pressure decreases
Angiotensin II Potent vasoconstrictor, causes increase in B/P, water retention
Reduce arterial pressure by preventing generation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I Ace Inhibitors
Cause decrease in B/P and increased renal perfusion. A persistent dry cough is a relatively common adverse effect. Ace Inhibitors
End in pril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril Ace Inhibitors
Block the binding of angiotensin II to specific tissue receptors in vascular smooth muscle & adrenal glands. Produces decrease in B/P. Angiotensin II Inhibitors
End in olol, propanolol, labetalol. Decrease heart rate and force of contraction. Beta adrenergic antagonist-Beta blockers
A common mnemonic used to describe the physiologic manifestations of atropine overdose is "hot as a hare, blind as a bat, dry as a bone, red as a beet, and mad as a hatter".
Reverse cholinergic (parasympathetic) effects. Blocks ACh at receptor sites in smooth muscles, secretory glands, SA & AV nodes & cardiac muscle Ex: Scopolamine-motion sickness, Atropine- treatment for bradycardia Anticholinergics
CNS neurotransmitter, Action: Inhibits excitatory signals produced by ACh. Decrease levels cause tremors (pill rolling) rigidity, bradykinesia, akinesia Dopamine
Extensive deterioration of neurons at basal ganglia. Parkinson's Disease
Dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's disease combo therapy is given Levodopa, precursor to dopamine
Treat moderate to severe pain by crossing blood brain barrier Opioids
Major effects of Opioids Decreased level of consciousness, respiratory depression, orthostatic hypotension, decreased muscle tone, urinary retention
Opioid antagonist: Drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose ex. heroin or morphine overdose Narcan
Produce maximal response (schedule II drugs)Ex: codeine, morphine, demerol, oxycodone Opioid agonist
Activate opioid receptor without causing respiratory depression Ex: stadol, nubain, talwin Opioid agonist-antagonist
Blocks prostaglandins that arise from the cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolic pathway. A non-steroidal drug to treat arthritic pain. Cox 2 Inhibitors
Cautions with Cox 2 & NSAIDS GI bleed, Renal failure, Asthma reaction
Hinder future clot formation by inhibiting conversion of prothrombin to thrombin (heparin or lovenox) or reducing amount of vit. K (coumadin) Anticoagulation
Prevents production of TXA2 causes platelet aggregation adn vessel constriction ex: ASA, plavix Antiplatelet
Dissolves thrombi after formation ex: TPA, retavase, used in combo with anticoagulants Thrombolytic
Inhibit platelet aggregation, used as adjunct with ASA & heparin to decrease clot formation ex: Reopro, Integrilin Glycoprotein IIB/IIA Inhibitors
Stimulates gastric acid secretion Histamine
Blocks release of histamine, esp w/stress, stress ulcers, allergic reactions ex: zantac, pepcid H-2 Blockers
Supress gastric acid secretion by irreversibly binding with proton pump system that controls hydrogen ion secretion. Use on high risk patients ex: Prevacid, Prilosec Proton Pump Inhibitors
Used for Asthma, COPD, Anti-inflammatory effect-reduced mucus secretion in respiratory conditions Corticosteroids
Side effects of Corticosteroids Mask infections, hyperglycemia, slow wound healing
Relieve bronchoconstriction, open airway ex: alupent, serevent proventil (inhalers) Beta Agonists
Side effects of Beta Agonists Tachycardia, headache, angina, muscle tremors
Created by: angienoriega on 2009-03-30



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