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Race Relations

Racial inequality in the 1940s/50s, WW2, segregation in the southern states

What were four barriers to racial equality? Segregation, lack of vote, KKK, economic and social problems.
How was segregation introduced? The Jim Crow Laws (1876-1965) segregated whites from blacks in public schools, public places and on public transport.
How important was the barrier of segregation? In what ways? The Jim Crow Laws could be applied differently in each state. Segregation was a barrier in every way (i.e. politically, socially, economically, legally).
Give more detail on the lack of vote: The 'Black Codes' limited civil rights and civil liberties of Black Americans. This included bringing in laws that made it impossible for Black Americans to vote, including a poll tax they couldn't afford and a literacy test marked by a White American.
What was the significance of a White American marking the literacy test that Black Americans needed to take in order to vote? They would nearly always fail them.
How important was the barrier of lack of vote? In what ways? It was very important as it took away their voice in society. On the surface it was solely a political barrier. In reality, it was a legal, economic and social barrier.
In what way was lack of vote a legal barrier? The literacy test ordered by laws named the 'Black Codes'.
In what way was lack of vote an economic barrier? The poll tax that was required in order to vote, with banks refusing loans.
In what way was lack of vote a social barrier? Police harassed blacks who tried to register.
What was the KKK (Ku Klux Klan)? Founded in 1866 by soldiers from the Confederate Army in 6 southern states. Purpose was to maintain slavery, gain revenge for the loss of the Civil War to the northern states + make sure that Black Americans wouldn't be equal citizens in south at least
What happened with the KKK in 1952? Its lynchings came to an end.
When did the KKK's lynchings come to an end? 1952
When were Klan groups re-established? Once the Civil Rights Movement began its actions in the 1950s.
What happened once the CRM began its actions in the 1950s? Klan groups were re-established.
Why were Klan groups re-established once the CRM began its actions in the 1950s? To challenge the movement.
What did the KKK do when Klan groups were re-established once the CRM began its actions in the 1950s? Houses were bombed, people intimidated and even assassinated. In Atlanta alone over 40 homes were bombed in 1951-52. Many murders were never reported.
How important was the barrier of the KKK? As Black Americans could not vote and juries were often white only, blacks didn't expect to get a verdict in their favour (on the KKK's crimes). Klansmen had close links with the local police and government, and used this to continue their intimidation.
What type of person was even in the KKK? Judges.
What type of barrier was the KKK to racial equality? Social and legal - it was a violent and scary barrier.
What were economic problems faced and why? Many businesses and white individuals created their own Jim-Crow type rules. This meant that Black Americans found that they couldn't buy houses in certain areas, couldn't find work with certain companies and couldn't get taken on in some skilled trades.
What did the Jim Crow Laws limit the opportunity for (economic/social problem)? Work. Black sportsmen had limited chances of competing in the first half of 20th century. Unemployment was twice as high for blacks and 50% of them lived in poverty.
As a result of the economic and social problems being mainly in the southern states, what happened? (In other words, how were these problems overcome?) Many Black Americans moved north when they had the chance - the Great Migration.
What did the Second World War show Black Americans that increased the effect of the economic and social problems on them? That life could be much better. Even after fighting in the Second World War, change was very slow for Black Americans.
Where did Black Americans have to live and why? They had to set up their own communities because they weren't allowed to live in the suburbs.
How important was the economic and social barrier? In what ways? The Jim Crow laws played an important part in damaging the quality of life of most Black Americans. (economic and social barriers).
Created by: mollyyy