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TermDefinition
equator line of latitude at 0 degrees; divides Northern and Southern hemisphere
prime meridian line of longitude at 0 degrees; divides Eastern and Western hemispheres
latitude imaginary lines that run horizontally, measured N or S from equator; degrees; comes first in locations (latitude, longitude)
longitude imaginary lines that run vertically; measured E or W from prime meridian; degrees; comes second in location (latitude, longitude)
archaeologist a scientist who hunts for evidence buried in the ground where settlements might once have been; studies artifacts and looks for fossils
artifact a weapon, tool, or another thing made by humans
fossil a trace of a plant and/or animal that has been preserved in a rock
anthropologist a scientist who focus on human society, studies how human developed, and studies how humans related to one another
nomad people who regularly move from place to place; traveled in bands of 30 or more members because it was safer and made the search for food easier
technology and methods to help humans perform tasks; i.e. – fire, fishing tools, etc.
domesticate to tame animals and/or plants for human use
Hammurabi Babylonian ruler; conquered only city-states north and south, creating an empire; Code of Hammurabi written in 1750 B.C.
irrigation a way of watering crops; building dams and channels to control the seasonal floods; building walls, waterways, and ditches to bring water to fields; allowed farmers to grow plenty of food and support a large population
city-state a part of Sumer- one Sumerian city and the land around it; had its own government, (the government wasn’t part of any larger unit)
artisan a skilled worker who made metal products, cloth or pottery
cuneiform Sumerian writing; consisted of hundreds of wedge-shaped marks cut into damp clay tablets with a sharp-ended reed; developed to keep track of business deals and other events; written by scribes
scribe record keepers; few boys (males) from wealthy families learned to write; they held honored positions in society, often going on to become judges or political leaders
empire a group of many different lands under one ruler
Sumer(ians) 3500-1800 B.C. first formal civilization; no central government; frequent wars and disagreements;ziggurats;cuneiform writing;wheel; plow; sailboat;bronze tools;farming;government;writing;12 month calendar;conquered by Sargon of Akkadian
Mesopotamia (ns) Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, river valleys (fertile land); government – laws, armies, buildings, language, social groups; Fertile Crescent; present day Iraq; between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; floods; irrigation
Babylon (ians) 1800-1600 B.C. large center of trade; Hammurabi conquered city states north and south creating an empire, Code of Hammurabi 1750 B.C.
Assyria (ns) 900 – 612 B.C. conquered Babylonians; at peak of power controlled Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent, Egypt; empire divided into provinces; warrior culture; cavalry, battering rams, and other tools
Nebuchadnezzar Chaldean King (Chaldeans 605-565 B.C.) rebuilt Babylon; hanging gardens; first to have 7 day week; defeated by the Persians in 539 B.C.
Province a political district; governed by officials who collected taxes and enforced the king’s laws (Assyrians)
Nile River (Valley) first settlers around 10,000 B.C.; flows south to north; starts in the mountains of East Africa; flows into the Mediterranean Sea creating the Nile Delta; fertile land; encouraged trade and cooperation between villages;
Nile River Where Egyptians’ got food (fish), cleaned, bathed, drank, transported
Hieroglyphics The Egyptian system of writing; made up of hundreds of picture symbols;stood for objects and ideas,others stood for sounds; carved on stone walls and monuments by scribes; a simplified version was made for everyday purposes and was written on papyrus
Sahara A vast desert to the west of the Nile; the largest hot desert in the world
cataract a wild rapid in the Nile River formed by narrow cliffs and boulders
delta (Nile) an area of fertile soil where branches of the Nile River fan out; Lower Egypt; near Mediterranean Sea
papyrus a reed plant that grew along the shores of the Nile; originally used to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts; later used for papermaking
dynasty a line of rulers from one family; when one died out, another took its place; a passing down from father to son to grandson….of ruling power
King Khufu Great Pyramid’s owner; Great Pyramid built 2540 B.C.; 10 miles from Cairo; standing in Giza, west bank of Nile; 500 feet tall; 9 football fields; 2 million 2.5 ton bricks
Pharaoh an Egyptian king; lived in a great palace with family; “great house; an all powerful ruler who guided Egypt’s every activity
Rosetta Stone unearthed in an old fort near Rosetta; discovered in AD 1799 by a French officer; 3 languages: Egyptian (hieroglyphics), Greek, demotic
deity a god or goddess
embalming process a process to preserve a dead pharaoh’s body organ removal, special salt application, drying, body filling with spices and perfumes, stitched closed, cleaning with oils, wrapped with long strips on linen tightly
mummy the result of embalming (a wrapped body); was put into several coffins, one fitting inside the other
pyramid a mountain-like tomb built entirely of stone for a pharaoh; size of several city blocks; protected bodies from floods, wild animals, grave robbers, held supplies
religion Polytheistic (many gods); an afterlife; the body was needed in order to reach the afterlife; mummies were made; possessions were buried.
Egyptian gods main god: Re (Ra), the sun god; Hapi, Nile River god; Isis, goddess of loyal wives and mothers; Osiris, god of the dead
Thebes city of Middle Kingdom, south of Memphis, large city
Hatshepsut First Egyptian female ruler; came to power as queen in 1473B.C.; ruled first as wife, then aunt, then pharaoh; avoided military conquests; focused on trade, economy, and wealth of Egypt; had a peaceful reign; rebuilt temples; built monuments
Canaan Most Israelites’ settlement; present-day countries: Lebanon, Israel, Jordan; after drought and famine in Mesopotamia, Bible said that Abraham led the Israelites to Canaan
Moses heard a voice: he believed that God was telling him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt to freedom; Exodus; got help from God
Monotheism belief in one god – religion type
Torah the Israelites’ laws from God; first part of the Hebrew Bible (5/39 books of the Hebrew Bible); 10 Commandments are basic moral laws (beginning of Torah)
David originally, a shepherd; a king after Saul; chosen by God and anointed secretly; brace soldier; hidden until and returns after death of Saul; runs Philistines (strongest occupants of Canaan at the time) out of Canaan makes Jerusalem the capital
Jerusalem Canaan’s capital (by David’s order); David’s opinion: a fine temple in Jerusalem for storing sacred religious objects
Judah one of the two kingdoms that formed after Solomon’s death; smaller of the two; southern; capital was Jerusalem; its people were called Jews
Solomon David’s son; king following David; built a stone temple (symbol and center for Judaism) in Jerusalem; was known for his proverbs; taxed for his great buildings, not favored by many Israelites
prophet a person who claims to be instructed by God to share God’s words
proverb a wise saying
Babylon where Jews went during exile: Jews met on Sabbath, prayed in synagogue
Diaspora a Greek word that means “scattered”; the Jews that were living outside of Judah in 331 B.C. and forbidden from Judah
Exile a period of time in which people are forced to live in a foreign land; Israelite religion became Judaism during Jews’ exile
Sabbath the Jewish weekly day of worship and rest
Synagogue a Jewish house of worship; where Jewish religious meetings took place
Zealot Jews that wanted to fight the Romans for their freedom; revolted in 66 A.D. drove them out of Jerusalem; Romans retook Jerusalem 4 years later
Bedouin desert herder in early Arabia; traveled from oasis to oasis; lived in tents; ate dried nuts, berries, little meat
Muhammad prophet, wealthy merchant, unhappy with society; growing poverty, unfair businessmen, family neglect; begins to spread Allah’s (God’s) message; preaches equality and charity; followers of Islam are called Muslims
Quran holy book of Islam containing God’s written word, rules of life, and moral teachings
Shiites minority of Muslims; believe that all caliphs should be descendants of Ali
Sunnis majority of Muslims; accepted Umayyad dynasty, not concerned with descendants of Ali
Shiites and Sunnis formed after a split
mosque Muslim house of worship; served as a school, court, and center of learning; a major part of Muslim cities
Jesus preaches/travels from 30-33 AD; 12 close followers-disciples; considered himself and told Christians to consider him as the son of God; told people that a relationship with God is more important than following religious laws; was crucified by the Romans
messiah a deliverer
Roman view of Jesus a person who could spark strong reactions; a threat to Roman law and order
persecute to mistreat; Roman government did this to Christians in 64 A.D.
crucify to hang somebody from a cross until their death (Rome’s way of punishing political rebels and lower-class criminals); Jesus’ death
clergy leaders of the church
New Testament a group of writings to guide Christians; tells about the life and death of Jesus; tells teachings of Jesus
Old Testament Hebrew Bible; also part of Christian Bible, not just Jewish
Roman Catholic Church formed of Latin-speaking Christians who accepted “pope” as head of church in 600 A.D. (bishop of Rome became pope); Western Roman Empire (Rome)
Eastern Orthodox Church formed by the Byzantine Empire; based on Greek heritage; church and government work closely together (emperor represents Jesus, emperors chooses leading church officials; Eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople)
Dark Ages a period of time in the Greek history in which earthquakes and wars destroy forts, trade slows, poverty takes over, people stopped writing and crafting; population shifts occurred and culture spread; positive and negative
Colony settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland; helped spread Greek culture
Polis a tiny independent country; no close ties to its homeland; example – a Greek city-state
Agora an open area below an acropolis that was both a market and a place where people could meet and debate issues
Sparta a military based Greek city-state; conquered and enslaved neighboring people; all males were trained for war at age seven; focus on physical strength and military led to a decline in trade; government: oligarchy
Athens a Greek city-state; boys attended school until age 18; girls were taught at home (running household; wealthy girls: reading, writing, lyre-playing); government: democracy;matters were discussed, debated and voted on; non-citizens not included
Delian League united all Greeks, except Sparta against Persians
direct democracy the Athenians’ democratic system in which people gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters
Representative democracy a democracy in which citizens choose smaller groups to make decisions on their behalf
Solon a noble who canceled farmers’ debts and freed enslaved people of Athens, allowed all male citizens to participate in assembly (to pass laws)
Peisistratus won support of poor by dividing wealthy people’s land and giving it to landless farmers, loaned money to them, gave them work (Cleisthenes came after)
oligarchy the Spartans’ type of government in which a few people hold power
helot a captive worker of the Spartans; “capture
Persia present day southwestern Iran; warriors and nomads were united by Cyrus; Darius (20 provinces, ruled by a satrap; paid full-time soldiers; large army); religion – Zoroastrianism (monotheistic); fought Persian Wars against Greece; empire falls
Cyrus the Great united Persians, 559-530 B.C. – Built large empire
Darius came to power in 521 B.C.; reorganized government for better quality; 20 provinces (satrapies) and rulers (satraps); led Persians to loss at the battle of Marathon, but wanted to lead them to victory
Xerxes Darius’ son; Persian king from 486 B.C.; vowed revenge; invade Greece again; led Persians to victory at battle of Thermopylae; burned Athens; retreated to Asia Minor after battle of Plataea
satrapies the 20 provinces of the Persian Empire (each led by a satrap)
Pericles ruler of Athens from 461-429 B.C.; dominated Delian League(promised to defend against Persians; headquarters on Delos); lower class could run for office (paid) rebuilt cities after Persian Wars; supported architects, writers, and philosophers
Philosopher a thinker who ponders questions about life
religion Deities shape events and lives; 12 main gods (and goddess) live on Mount Olympus; all powerful; *most Greeks are Christians today – Eastern Orthodox or Greek Orthodox
Gods and goddesses Zeus: king of deities (sky god); Poseidon: god of the sea; Hades: god of the underworld
myth a traditional story about deities and heroes; Greek myths expressed Greeks; religious beliefs
drama a story told by actors who pretend to be characters in the story; speak, show emotion, and imitate the actions of the characters they represent (tragedies and comedies)
Plato Greek philosopher: rejected democracy; believed that philosopher-king should rule; his “Republic” tells about his ideal government; introduced the idea of a fair and just government
Pythagoras Greek mathematician; established the principles of geometry first; “The universe should be governed with the same law as as math and music” – philosopher
Socrates Greek philosopher; criticized the Sophists; believed in absolute right and wrong; Socratic method: pointed questions force pupils to use reasoning and thinking; teachers use his methods today
Aristotle Greek philosopher; “golden mean”: people should do nothing in excess; observation and comparison are used to gain
Herodotus Greek historian; wrote history of Persian Wars; considered “father of history”; history includes reference to gods and goddess in connection with events; separated fact from legend
Philip II Macedonian king 359 B.C.; wants to unite with Greece and defeat Persia; joined with Greek city-states both peacefully and aggressively; murdered
Alexander the Great Philip II’s son; Macedonian king (age 20); “Iliad” was inspiration; treated army well; great military leader; spread empire through most of today’s Middle East; sp
Alexander the Great's accomplishments in 334 B.C. invades Asia Minor, frees from Persia; took Syria and Egypt; built city of Alexandria as trade center;read Greek art, ideas, language, etc. widely; led into Hellenistic Era (a time when Greek ideas spread)
Legacy what a person leaves behind when he or she dies
Himalayas huge mountains that make India a subcontinent; the highest mountains in the world
Indus River Valley the area around the Indus River; in India; fertile land; water of Indus River needs to be controlled
Monsoon strong wind that blows one direction in winter (cold, dry air) opposite direction in summer (wet, warm air); brings different climates
Sanskrit the written Indian language
raja the leader of an Aryan tribe; ran a small kingdom
guru a teacher of a boy in a wealthy family
caste the system of having social groups that someone is born into and cannot change; “jati”; dictates your occupation, spouse and social partners
Hinduism one of the largest and oldest religions today; was founded in early India; accepted caste system; began with Aryans; changed as ideas were borrowed from elsewhere; polytheistic; search for universal spirit; karma
Buddhism founded by Siddhartha Gautama ( questioned the suffering of other people); understand the world by giving up desires; nirvana; Four Noble Truths; two groups because of disagreements: Theravada and Mahayana
karma the consequences of how a person lives; Hinduism (many lives lead to the Brahman; reincarnation; dharma)
reincarnation the idea of passing through lives to reach the Brahman (in Hinduism); influenced Hindus
theocracy a government in which religious leaders head a government; rulers were called lamas
Mauryan Dynasty Chandragupta Maurya; conquered an area in northern India left by Alexander the Great; dynasty founded in 321 B.C.; centralized government from Pataliputra (strong army, spy system, postal sysem); Asoka
Asoka ruled from 273-232 B.C.; first great Buddhist king; dedicated life to peace; built hospitals for people and animals, roads, stupas; tolerated other religions; died in 232 B.C.; poor leadership follows, ending the Mauryan Empire
Gupta Empire reunited India; 320 A.D. Prince Chandragupta grows powerful; empire prospered from trade; art and science begin; Mahabharata (longest poem) and Ramayana-still famous epics; Aryabhata: best mathematician; zero; infinity; advanced in astronomy and medicine
pilgrim a person who uses a trade route to travel to a religious shrine or site
Shang Dynasty Anyang-first capital (in Huang He Valley); social groups: royalty (warlords and royal officials), aristocrats, farmers; offerings to spirits and ancestors; oracle bones; silk clothes; white clay-china; ivory and jade statues; bronze items;bad emperors
Chinese language 3500 years old, pictographs and ideograph, most characters represent whole words
Zhou Dynasty Wu Wang started it in 1045 B.C.; warring states led to creation of sword, spears, crossbow, saddles, stirrups; bureaucracy under king; aristocrats controlled land; irrigation systems; flood control systems;more crops, food, bigger population, trade increa
Qin Dynasty Emperor Shinhuangdi;contolled neighboring states one by one; followed Legalism; strong central government (province and county rulers were chosen by king); unified China;Great Wall (kept out Xiongnu); civil war; terracotta warriors
Han Dynasty Liu Bang takes over (harsh policies); tests for positions; rich/smart people favored); population growth (small farms, lack of food, land to aristocrats); inventions; Silk Road; Buddhism
Mandate of Heaven an order stating that the king was chosen by heavenly order because of his talent and virtue; king is not god; king was expected to rule the proper way – DAO; people were given the right to overthrow a king if a natural disaster occurred during his rule
Daoism a Chinese philosophy that promotes a peaceful society; Taoism (nature)
Laozi basis for Daoism; told people how to behave and be peaceful: give up all worldly possessions, seek inner peace and look for harmony with nature
Hanfeizi developed teachings for Legalism; wanted laws; believed humans were evil and needed harsh laws
Confucius first great thinker and teacher; “people need sense of duty” – Confucianism; if all did their duty, society would do well: “golden rule”; tried to convince rulers for support
Legalism “School of Law”; the idea that honorable men in government could bring peace to society; people are not good, so strict laws are needed; people need to be controlled and trained
Silk Road transportation of goods; silk trading provides a lot of revenue (government income); travel along the Silk Road allows for plenty of trade (4000 miles from western to southwest China; covers numerous territories; reached Byzantine Empire when empire grew
Romulus and Remus “Made Rome”; abandoned near Tiber River; wolf saves boys; Romulus kills Remus; Rome named after Romulus
Twelve Tables first written laws; allowed for fair and equal interpretation of law for all citizens (especially plebeians)
Etruscans came from north of Rome; moved south after 650 B.C.; shared metal-working and architecture; laid out streets, temples, buildings; showed new style of dress; displayed model of army; ruled Rome for over a century (Tarquins)
republic a form of government in which the leader is not a king of queen, but someone put in office by citizens with the right to vote; the citizens have the power; Roman Republic formed when Romans overthrew the Tarquins
legion a small group of soldiers that cut through enemies; better than marching in lines; 6,000 soldiers
Carthage enemy of Rome during Punic Wars; richest city in West Mediterranean
Hadrian’s Wall a wall built by Hadrian (a “Good Emperor” of the Pax Romana) across northern Britain to keep out Pics and Scots: warlike people from northern Britain
Punic Wars 1st – fight for Scicily; naval battle; Rome’s victory; 2nd – Hannibal (officer) sent to attack Rome; fought via Spain into Italy; Scipio invades Carthage; Carthage loses Spain, navy and money to Rome; 3rd – Rome destroys Carthage
Hannibal sent to attack Rome during second Punic War; Carthage’s greatest general; army of men, horses, elephants
patrician made up upper class of Rome, a wealthy landowner; made up Rome’s ruling class; Roman citizen
plebeian made up of Roman lower class; artisans, shop keepers, and owners of small farms; Roman citizen; could not serve in government; could not marry a patrician
consul patrician; chosen every year; top government official; headed the army and ran the government
Julius Caesar killed on March 15th (“Ides of March”); Julian calendar; part of the first triumvirate; filled senate with loyal members
Julius Caesar's accomplishments
Octavian part of second triumvirate; Lepidus retires, Antony dies (marries Cleopatra; gets war declared, Antony and Cleopatra VII die); starts Roman Empire; restores republic, (follows ideas of Cicero; changed name to Augustus)
Octavian's accomplishments
Pax Romana “Roman Peace”; a long era of Roman peace (of Mediterranean region) that began with Augustus as emperor and lasted until 180 A.D.
Aqueduct a human made channel for carrying water long distances (across valleys or hillsides) using gravity, aboveground stone arches, and underground (stone or clay) pipes
Ptolemy important astronomer of the Roman Empire; lived in Alexandria Egypt; mapped over 1,000 different stars; studied and created rules about the movements of planets and starts; created an accepted idea for centuries: Earth was center of universe
plague a disease that spreads widely; took its toll during Rome’s decline; in Rome took the lives of one in every ten people
mosaic a picture made from many bits of colored glass or stone; an important type of art in the Byzantine Empire; showed mainly figures of saints
Theodosius emperor after Constantine; decided to divide empire after death; in 395 A.D., Roman Empire split; Western Roman Empire (capital: Rome) and Eastern Roman Empire (capital: Constantinople)
The Byzantine Empire adopted this form of Christianity? Eastern Orthodox
Empress Theodora Emperor Justinain’s wife; helped Justinian rule; chose officials’, passed laws, increased women’s rights (wives could own land); strong willed and intelligent; saved Justinian’s throne in 532 A.D.
Huang He Valley site of first Chinese civilization
Oracle Bones used to contact spirits
Forum open space for market place in the middle of Rome
Cicero Rome’s greatest public speaker
Julian Calendar had 12 months, 365 days, and a leap year
Thucydides recorded history without referring to mythology or deities
Aristocrats nobles whose wealth came from the land they owned
Bureaucracy officials are appointed for government positions
Tenant farmers people who pay their rent by giving the landlord a portion of their crops
Merchants/skilled workers prosper during Roman Empire. Farmers, unskilled worker slaves do not benefit from this time
Currency helped Roman trade
Odoacer taking control marks the fall of Western Roman Empire
3 Sumerian inventions wheel, sailboat, and plow
Chaldean King who rebuilt Babylon and created the hanging gardens King Neb.
This is the faith of the Israleites Judaism
Created by: LaxyLucy7