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Tudor History

A Level History, including Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I

Edward VI is seen as highly confident, intelligent and opinionated even through childhood. Give some examples of this. He demanded the fourth sword at his coronation which represented the Bible. He had an interest in the military and foreign treaties He would scribble notes in Greek He was always serious and self disciplined He didn't follow the usual Tudor Coronation
Edward VI came to the throne at the age of 9. He couldn't rule by himself as he hadn't reached his majority. What were the fears of minority rule? Lack of experience and knowledge, Would he have the authority? Easier to influence, Potential lack of support, Was the throne completely secure?
Who were the two people who essentially ruled for Edward during his minor years? Earl of Somerset - The Lord Protector Duke of Northumberland - The Lord President
What were some of Somerset's Policies? Foreign Policy was to continue a costly war with both France and Scotland, Economy was to continue the use of debasement to pay for the war, Social Order included the controversial enclosure policy, Religion was to move towards Protestantism
What were the results of Somerset's Foreign and Religious Policies ? The war ended up with the French taking back Boulogne, which resulted in more debasement for garrisoning Scotland. Religion included the introduction of English preaching, English Prayer book and the Act of Uniformity.
What were the results of Somerset's Economic and Social Policies? The population was rising quicker than farming could keep up with. Wages were suffering and their value dropped by 50% over the decade. English exports should've done well with the drop in value of the £ abroad, but this was disrupted due to the war.
What happened to Somerset in 1549? He was faced with removal from the council as he wasn't considered competent for the role. He took Edward with him to Windsor Castle where he was arrested and banished from the Council. He was executed in 1552.
Who succeeded in removing and replacing Somerset? Duke of Northumberland - The Lord President
What were the Religious policies Northumberland had? He integrated himself with Edward's views, He agreed to allow the Act of 42 Articles
What were the Social and Economic policies Northumberland had? He changed the coinage to try and help the economy - instead it resulted in a collapse of exports in 1551. Economic reforms were ineffective, however the new coinage slowed down inflation and helped improve the social condition.
What was Northumberland's Foreign Policy? He surrendered the down of Boulogne and withdrew English troops from the Scottish garrisons. He kept England out of military disasters by doing this, even if the policy was bad for England's reputation and its low popularity.
What were some things included in the first part Edward's Religious Settlement, which included removing Catholic practice from practice? Royal Visitation, where Commissioners checked the state of the Church and Clergy. Royal Injunctions, ordered that priests preached in English. Chantries Act, Condemned praying for the dead. Treason Act repeal, hearsay, censorship removed.
What were some of the other policies in the second phase of Edward's Religious Settlement? All images to be removed from the church, like stain glass windows. Only authorised clergy allowed to preach. Introduced instructions on how to preach.
What were some of the other policies in the third phase of Edward's Religious Settlement? The First Prayer Book was introduced, outlined the form of worship. Act of Uniformity passed which reinforced the First Prayer Book. Stone Alters were removed and replaced with wood ones. New Treason Act made it illegal to question the royal superemacy
What were some of the other policies in the completion of Edward's Religious Settlement? 2nd Prayer Book introduced, highly protestant removing all traces of Catholicism. 2nd Act of Uniformity, enforced 2PB made it an offence for clergy not to attend church. Catechism produced, was a manual on the beliefs of the church.
What is some of the evidence to prove Edward VI was a protestant? He was always surrounded by protestants during his time growing up and would've been influenced by them. The fact that he wanted these changes may also point to that Somerset and Northumberland were influencing him.
What were the two rebellions Edward faced? Kett's Rebellion Western Rebellion
What were the causes of the Western Rebellion? The forced introduction of the Common Book of Prayer.
What were the demands of the Rebels? The removal of the Common Book of Prayer The reintroduction of Catholicism, The Act of Six Articles and Prayers for the Dead.
What were the causes of Kett's Rebellion? The introduction of enclosure and higher rent, the agricultural issues and poor local government.
What were the demands of the Rebels? The removal of enclosure and more controlled rent. Solving the issue of better local government.
Were any of these rebellions a threat to Edward? *Think for yourself here*
What was the Succession Crisis? Edward had fallen critically ill and was very likely to die from his illness. It was a problem that was to stop Mary from gaining the crown, as she was Catholic, instead it would go to Lady Jane Grey.
What was some of the evidence that the solution was Edwards doing? The solution was written by his hand, He ordered the document to be written up.
What was some of the evidence that the solution was Northumberland's doing? He made sure all of the important people signed it. Northumberland made sure his son married Jane Grey.
Why did Northumberland fail to keep Mary from succeeding the throne? Mary had the support of the people and Northumberland was unpopular. Mary had the true claim to the throne. As Edward hadn't reached his majority his will was inferior to Henry VIII's. Northumberland left the security of the Privy Council in Cambridge
What was Mary's personality like? Strongly conservative Very routine Would always pray
What were the problems Mary would face right away? Convincing the Privy Council to accept her Restoring her legitimacy Choosing her Privy Councillors Marry Deal with Northumberland and his supporters.
What were the problems that would dominate Mary's reign? Restoring Catholicism. Looking after her health. Defending Calais. Having Children
What were Mary's priorities? 1. Catholicism 2. The Succession 3. Defending English territory
What were some of Mary's successes? Acclaimed the throne and removed Northumberland. Got her legitimacy back. Mary married Philipe of Spain. Crushing the Wyatt Rebellion. Reuniting England with the Roman Catholic Church. Philipe returning to England.
What were some of Mary's failiures? 1555 and 1556 harvest failure resulted in famine. Widespread sickness and death in England. Calais surrendered to the French. Influenza epidemic. Dealing with her own health. Philipe leaving for the Netherlands.
What is a trend with Mary's failures? That they most of them were out of her own control.
What were some of the causes of the Wyatt Rebellion? People were sceptical of the marriage between Mary I and King Philipe of Spain. They were concerned about England becoming a colony of Spain and the marriage would produce a part Spanish heir.
What could've been some of the other causes of the Wyatt Rebellion? Ongoing economic hardships. Local political instability.
Mary wanted to join the Roman Catholic Church and English Church together again. What were some of the problems she faced doing this? Does the Pope want England back? Privy Council had benefitted from the break. Pope could want all the land back. The people had changed their beliefs.
How would've the Protestants been dealt with by Mary? Persuading them to become Catholic. or Persecuting them.
How would've Mary and Pole have persuaded people to join the Catholic Church? The church would have strong leadership, the clergy were subject to regular, random visits to check on the clergy. Censorship was used against the protestant writings and teachings. The policy of burning the protestants and their books.
What were some of the strengths with this strategy? Clergy would behave at all times as they wouldn't know when a check up would be. It also got rid of some corruption as Priests would only have one parish.
What were the weaknesses with this strategy? It needed time to work and Mary wasn't prepared to wait to get her way, her health was also in decline. It was only encouraged, not obligatory, that bishops inspected their parishes. There were still enough books for a underground religion.
Mary chose to persecute the protestants. What was the point of this and what were the repercussions? The purpose was to show that she was in control and targeted areas that had large populations of protestants. People started to question why the protestants were willing to die as martyrs and helped unify them. It led to her decline in popularity.
What is some of the evidence that the burnings were assisting Mary? Large numbers of people saw the event and how serious it was. There were only a few clergy men who were burnt. It created fear amongst the protestants. The protestants abroad never formed a collective interest.
What is some of the evidence that the burning didn't help Mary? Some deaths, like Taylor and Rogers cited widespread sympathy. The humble status of the victims seem to strengthen the impact of their martyrdom. The PC banned servants, apprentices and young people from attending the burnings.
Was the Marian reintroduction of Catholicism a success? She joined the churches together. Only 280 people were burnt, which is very insignificant. Parliament repealed anti-Papal legislation.
Was the Marian reintroduction of Catholicism a failure? England returned to Protestantism a few year later. Local government didn't enforce Mary's laws.
When did Mary I die and who succeeded her? November 1558, she was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I.
What was the personality of Elizabeth I? Strong willed with no tolerance. Good commander and leader. Wants power for herself. Concerned for her image.
What were some of the problems Elizabeth I faced? Changing England's religious position. She wouldn't have children (although she wanted a child). The Pope didn't recognise her and wanted her dead. Ageing wasn't kind in the latter years.
What was Elizabeth concerned about with the prospect of marriage? Handing over power. Who to choose. Had no experience. Liked being her own woman. The supposed perceived vulnerability of women.
What were the issues that divided the council in Elizabeth's reign? (1562-1581) 1562 - wanting to meet MQS. Feared for her safety. 1567 -Eliz. choice to marry Charles of Austria. 1570 - what to do about MQS in England. 1578 - give military aid to protestants in Netherlands? 1581 - Eliz. choice to marry Alencon + protest over it.
What were the issues that divided the council in Elizabeth's reign? (1586-1590s) 1586 - pushing Elizabeth to sign a death warrant against MQS. 1590s - Essex rebels against Elizabeth and the Council, he is defeated and executed
How did Elizabeth control her Privy Council? Anger and Violence - she executed Norfolk and Essex Promoting division - she made the councillors compete for rewards. Only rarely attending - meaning they would always behave. Affection.
Using examples, state the four phases of the Privy Council throughout Elizabeth's reign. 1558 - 65: Period of agreement: didn't want her meeting MQS. '65-'72: Factions: divided on Charles/Eliz marriage '72-'90: Cooperation: wanting Eliz. to sign MQS death warrant. 90s: Decay: Essex's Rebellion.
What powers did Parliament have? Granting extraordinary subsides Elizabeth cannot pass law without Parliament. Point of contact between Elizabeth and the people.
Facts about Parliament: There was an average of 3 years between each parliament. Elizabeth's parliament averaged 33 acts per session, more than any other tudor monarch. Elizabeth vetoed 34 bills. 5 times for matter of the state, the rest because of thee wording of the bill.
How did Elizabeth manage Parliament? Using fear and threats. Banning topics from being spoken about, like MQS. Imprisonment. Only calling Parliament when she needed it. Membership is controlled. Suspending parliament. Promoting division. Speeches. Using her Royal Veto.
What did Elizabeth have to consider when creating her Religious Settlement? Didn't want to be associated with Mary. Much to be gained from break from Rome. Consequences home and abroad. Religion would tie her issue of marriage. She needed to be cautious on who she may upset.
What is Transubstantiation? The belief the bread and wine is apart of Christ.
What is Consubstantiation? The belief the bread and wine symbolises the sacrifice of Christ.
What did Elizabeth want in her religious settlement? Uniformity - everything the same, it leads to power and control for her. Keeping the Protestants and Catholics happy, lowering the chance of rebellion. Needs to consider foreign relations, Not upset powers like France and Spain.
What were the 4 bills Elizabeth submitted to Parliament? The Act of Supremacy, 1559 The Act of Uniformity, 1559 The Act of Exchange, 1559 The Act of 39 Articles
What did the Act of Supremacy involve? Made Eliz Supreme Head of the Church, was rejected for appearing too strong, was later changed to Supreme Governor. Removed Marian Heresy laws which wasn't taken well by the Lords. States all officials take an oath on accepting Eliz title.
What did the Act of Uniformity involve? Imposed the Common Book of Prayer in English, with the Black Rubic removed. Made attending church compulsory. Allowed the Catholic style of churches and robes as Elizabeth liked the style of Catholic Churches.
What did the Act of Exchange involve? This gave the Queen the right to exchange property with the church for temporary property. Bishops had to rent to the monarchy for the first 21 years of the acts implementation.
What did the Act of 39 Articles involve? Required ministers to accept the Royal Supremacy. People agreed that the Common Book of Prayer was nothing contrary to the word of God. People would also agree the 39A were agreeable to the words of God.
What was the impact of the Religious Settlement on the Catholic and Protestants? No drastic change in doctrine. Church and garment looks kept the same.
What were the political and practical considerations of the Religious Settlement? Bishops in the Lords forced her to be less radical in her settlement. It forced her to compromise.
What was the impact of the Religious Settlement on Foreign Relations? Needed to keep on good terms with Spain so it was less radical. Treaty between England and France lowered the threat of French invasion allowing the Settlement to be slightly more radical.
Created by: lukecoleman