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Tsardom to Communism

1.1 - The revolution of March 1917: the abdication of the Tsar

What was an issue with the winter of 1916-17? It was exceptionally severe - the coldest for a long time. In Petrograd, the temperature reached -35C.
What were the results of the severity of the winter of 1916-17? Fuel froze. Women queued for hours to buy basic necessities such as bread.
What was happening in Petrograd in the severe winter of 1916-17? Many people were starving to death. Strikes broke out and factory workers met in huge crowds in the streets.
What was/is the significance of 8th March? It is International Women's Day
What happened on 8th March 1917? 90,000 people were on strike in Petrograd, and there were demonstrations against the shortage of bread and fuel. Strikes spread, including the Putilov armaments works which employed 40,000 people.
On what day did 90,000 people go on strike in Petrograd (etc.)? 8th March 1917
On succeeding days (after 8th March 1917), what happened? Large numbers of people were in the streets with slogans such as 'Down with the German woman!' and 'Down with the Tsar!'.
As a result of the slogans large numbers of people were bringing to the streets (such as 'Down with the German woman!' and 'Down with the Tsar!'), what did Nicholas II do? He ordered the army commander in Petrograd to crush the marchers and rioters.
What was an issue with the Tsar's orders to the army commander in Petrograd to crush the marchers and rioters? What did this mean? Increasingly, regiments refused to obey orders, and many officers fled. This meant that Petrograd was in the hands of the rioting mob.
Who was the President of the Duma in March 1917? Rodzianko
After Petrograd became in the hands of the rioting mob, what did Rodzianko, President of the Duma, do? In desperation, he telegraphed the Tsar to inform him of the seriousness of the situation.
How did the Tsar react to Rodzianko's warning telegraph? He ignored the warning, preferring instead to read the telegraph from his wife telling him that the disturbances would soon be under control.
After the Tsar ignored Rodzianko's warning telegraph, what did the Duma decided to do? Reluctantly, the Duma decided to take over the control of the government.
At the same time as the Duma reluctantly decided to take control of the government, what happened in Petrograd? The workers organised themselves into a soviet (workers' council) in Petrograd.
After the Duma had taken control of the government and the Petrograd soviet had been organised, what did the Tsar do? He at last tried to return to Petrograd.
What happened when the Tsar at last tried to return to Petrograd? He reached Pskov where the railway line was blocked. His train was moved into a siding and he was persuaded by Russian army commanders to abdicate.
When Russian army commanders persuaded the Tsar to abdicate, what did he do? He tried to pass his throne to his brother Michael, but he refused. Alexis, of course, was not fit to rule.
What happened on 15th March 1917? Over 300 years of Romanov history ended (with the Tsar's abdication).
On what date did over 300 years of Romanov history end (with the Tsar's abdication)? 15th March 1917
Created by: mollyyy