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Tsardom to Communism

1.1 - The existence of opposition groups

Although most in Russia in 1914 were loyal to their country and to the Tsar, were there exceptions? Yes, there were people who wanted change.
As well as the views of some Russian people changing, what else was changing? Russia itself was changing with the process of industrialisation.
What were some Russians becoming around 1914? Some Russians were becoming more educated and more aware of different methods of ruling a country.
What prevented opposition in Russia? The Tsar did not allow political opposition and the Okhrana hunted down suspects. However, opposition groups had developed.
Who were the three main opposition groups that had developed in Russia in 1914? -> The Kadets (Constitutional Democrats) -> The Social Revolutionaries (the SRs) -> The Social Democrats
Who were The Kadets (Constitutional Democrats)? A middle-class liberal party that wanted peaceful political change with the elected Duma gaining real power - just as parliament had done in Victorian Britain.
Who supported The Kadets (Constitutional Democrats)? Their support was mostly limited to more wealthy and more educated people living in towns and cities.
Who were the Socialist Revolutionaries (the SRs)? They wanted to seize power by revolution.
Who supported the Socialist Revolutionaries (the SRs)? Why? They had some support from the peasants, as the plan was to take land from the landlords (the nobles) and give it to them.
What was an issue with the support of the Socialist Revolutionaries (the SRs)? It was difficult to organise the peasants, scattered as they were across large areas of land.
Who were the Social Democrats? They believed in the communist teachings of Karl Marx.
Who supported the Social Democrats? Mostly workers in the factories.
What happened to the Social Democrats? In 1903, they had split into two groups - the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks.
Who were the Bolsheviks? The smaller group who believed that revolution was possible, even if they did not have mass support, if it was plotted in secret and carried out ruthlessly. The leader of the Bolsheviks was Lenin.
What is Communism? It is derived from Marxism and refers to an economic and social system in which everyone works together for the common good. In a perfect communist society, all would be equal and there would be no need for any money.
Created by: mollyyy