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Chapter 13

Vocabulary – Blood System

Albumin: Protein and blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood.
Antibody (AB): Specific protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses or other antigens. Antibody Pacific to an antigen and inactivates it.
Basophil: White blood cell containing granules that stain blue ; associated with the release of histamine and heparin
Bilirubin: Orange- yellow pigment in bile; or by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed.
Coagulation: Blood clotting.
Colony – stimulating factor (CFS): Protein that stimulates growth of white blood cells (granulocytes).
Differentiation: Change in structure and function of the cell as it matures: specialization.
Electrophoresis: Method of separating serum protein by electrical charge.
Eosinophil White blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reactions.
Erythroblast: Immature red blood cell.
Erythrocyte: Red blood cell. There are about 5 million per microliter (u L) or cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood.
Erythropoietin (EP0): Hormone secreted by the kidneys; stimulates red blood cell formation.
Fibrin: Protein that form the basis of a blood clot.
Fibrinogen: Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.
Globulin: Plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples.
Granulocyte: White blood cell with numerous dark – staining granules: eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil.
Hematopoietic stem cell: Cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to all types of blood cells.
Hemoglobin: Blood protein containing iron; carry oxygen in red blood cells.
Hemolysis: Destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells) if blood types are not compatible during transfusion.
Heparin: Anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells.
Immune reaction: Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
Immunoglobulin: Protein (globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgA, IgM, IgG, IgE, IgD. Immun/o means protection.
Leukocyte: White blood cell.
Lymphocyte: Mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies.
Macrophage: Monocyte that migrates from the blood state. As a phagocyte, it engulfs material and debris. In the liver, spleen and bone marrow, macrophages destroy worn-out red blood cells.
Megakaryocyte: Large platelet precursor cell found in bone marrow.
Monocyte: Leukocyte with one large nucleus. It is felt that engulfs or in material and debris. Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissue.
Mononuclear: Pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes.
Myoblast: Immature bone marrow that gives rise to granulocytes.
Neutrophil: Granulocytic leukocyte born in bone marrow. It is a phagocytic tissue fighting itself. Also called a Polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
Plasma: Liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, lipids, hormones, and vitamins.
Plasmapheresis: Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are re-transfused back into the donor. Fresh frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma.
Platelet: Small blood fragment that collects at site of injury to begin the clotting process
Polymorphonuclear: Pertaining to white blood cell with multi-loaded; neutrophil.
Prothrombin: Plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
Reticulocyte Immature erythrocyte. A network of strands (reticulin) is seen after staining the cells special dye.
Rh factor: Antigen on red blood cells of our Rh – positive (Rh*) individuals. The factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey.
Serum Plasma minus clotting proteins and cell. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is born from plasma, but does not contain protein – coagulation factors.
Stem cell: Unspecified cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hematopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells.
Thrombin: Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to the fibrin and during coagulation
Thrombocyte Platelet.
Created by: Bowiegirl