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History test

History Test

What was shaped as a Narrow Boot? The peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea.
When did it happen? Modern-day Italy
What were the 3 continents during the trading? Asia, Africa, and Europe
How was the atmosphere? Mild, moist climate, and rich soil
What were the cons of Swamps at the mouths of rivers? Infested with disease-carrying mosquitoes
What did the mountains caused early people to do? Only trade among themselves
Why did the Greek sailed up to Italy? To set up farming colonies
According to a myth, by who was Rome founded? Romulus and Reemus
What did Rome consisted first? Consisted of 7 villages and 7 hills
Who were the first wealthy kings of United Rome? The Tarquins
What did the Tarquins taught the people? Taught people to build houses out of bricks and laid out city streets
What did the Forum became when created? The seat of Roman Government
When were Tarquins driven out? In 509 B.C.E
Why were the Tarquins driven out? People were upset with the Tarquins "Proud's" cruelty and harshness.
Social Groups
Who were wealthy Roman nobles? Patricians
By who was Rome declared Republic? In a community in which people elect their leaders.
What were most romans? Plebeians
What were plebeians? Landowners, merchants, farmers, and etc.
What did they have? Had some rights, but couldn't hold public offices
Rome's Government
What were 2 Rome's Government branches? Legislative and executive
What did the Legislative Branch do? Elected people to the executive Branch
What other things did the Legislative Branch do? Senate proposed laws, advised consuls, debated foreign policy, & approved building contracts
How many consuls did the Executive Branch headed? 2 consuls
What role did the patricians played in the executive branch? Patrician officials elected to 1- year terms
WWho could veto the actions? Either consuls could veto the actions of the other
Who appointed a dictator? The Romans
What was the role of the dictator? A leader whose word was law --> only during times of crisis
What could the dictator do? Could overrule the consuls
Who resented the the fact that they didn't have any power? The plebeians
What did the plebeians refused to do? Refused to fight in the army unless their demands were met
Who was given representatives in government? Plebeians
What were the representatives called? The tribunes
Who elected the Tribunes? Plebeians improved their social standing
What did rome constantly faced? Threats from it's neighbors
What did rome do in order to protect the republic? Conquered it's opponents or forced them to be allies with Rome
When did Rome ruled the entire Italian Peninsula? In 264 B.C.E
What were soldiers called? Legionaries
How were the Legionaries? Well- trained; desertion was punishable by death
How did the romans treated people? Treated people well during this time
Who were linked by their series of roads? Rome & it's colonies
Who were the wealthiest city in the Mediterranean Sea? Carthage
What did the Romans wanted to put in check? Wanted to put the expansion of Carthage in check
Rome Vs. Carthage First Punic War
Why did the First Punic War start? Started when carthage wanted to seize the Strait of Messina & the Romans wanted to stop them
Who won? Rome defeated carthage & took over Sicily
What was Carthage forced to pay? Forced to pay huge indemnity which was payment for damages
Rome Vs. Carthage Second Punic War
Who became the general of the Carthaginian army in Spain? Hannibal
What did Hannibal do? Took over one of Rome's allied cities
What did he invade? He invaded italy with 40,000 soldiers and 40 elephants
On their way in crossing the alps, what happened to hannibal's army? 1/2 of hannibal's army were killed by snow, cold, hunger, sickness, & attacks by the mountain people
What did Hannibal's Army destroy? They were in verge of destroying the entire Roman army
Rome Vs. Carthage Third Punic War
What did Rome forced 50 years later? Forced War on Carthage
What did the Romans do to Carthage? Burned carthage to the ground and sold its people into slavery
The republic in crisis
What did the Roman controlled? All of the Mediterranean
What grew? Social discontent
What did the Roman corrupt in order to get rich? Corrupt Roman officials creating large estates and by stealing land from poor farmers & using a profitable agriculture business
What did the Roman officials used? Used captives and prisoners war as slaves on the estates
What did they do to the people ? Conquered them and most of the people lost their land and couldn't find jobs
The republic in crisis: Slave Revolts
By who was the major revolt led? By a slave named Spartacus
What happened during this major revolt? Romans finally crushed the uprising; killing about 6,000 revolters
Possible Solution?
Who were the consuls during that time? The Gracchus brothers
What was their proposal? Distributing land to the poor but they were both murdered
Solution Worked Army leaders came to rule Rome
What did the Army leaders do? Formed separate armies that fought each other for power
What did Julius Caesar use to get political power? He used this practiced of using the army
The first emperors
How was the Roman Republic? Too week to maintain control
Who believed that Roman needed ONE strong ruler? Octavian
What name did the Octavian give himself? He gave himself the title "Augustus" which means "majestic one"
Who became the first emperor? Octavian became the absolute ruler
What did he do? Rebuilt Rome
What did he import? Imported grain so all the Rome could be fed
What did he build? He build new roads & and rebuilt the old ones
What did he have? Had magnificent buildings.
How many years did he ruled? 40 years.
What did Tiberius Caesar do? Accused innocent people of treason.
How was Caligula Caesar killed? Mentally disturbed & killed by a palace guard.
How was Claudius Cesar? Very smart, but had trouble focusing on affairs of the state.
How was Nero Caesar? Cruel & insane.
What was Nero Caesar willing to do? Willing to bankrupt Rome to pay for his horse racing & music.
Who did he killed? Paranoid of traitors -> Killed own wife, mother, and other senators.
How was he killed? Sentenced to death for treason, but killed himself first.
Good Emperors
What did Trajan do? Increased the empire to greatest size.
What did Marcus Aurelius do? Brought the empire to the height of its economic prosperity.
Roman Civilization
What did the Pax Romana do? Boosted trade & generated many achievements in arts (pottery, woven cloth, blown glass, jewelry).
What happen to the families? Family became less significant.
What did the family have? Fewer children, likely to divorce & remarry several times, wives gained some legal rights.
What did the Wealthy class have? Owned large farms, ran factories, held public offices.
Where did they live? Lived in luxurious homes with marble & mosaic floors, running water, and baths.
How was most of Rome? Most of rome was still poor.
Where did they live? Bathes in public baths, lived in apartments buildings that could easily collapse or catch fire.
What did the people rebel? Didn't rebel because they got free food & entertainment like chariot races and gladiators fights.
What was built? Built aqueducts= artificial channels for carrying water.
What did the aqueducts do? Brought water to rome from far away.
What did the wealthy boys & girls received? Tutoring at home.
Where did wealthy boys go to? Went to academics.
What did the wealthy girls do? Continued studying at home & often learned as much as the men.
What did the lowest classes have? They usually had at least knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic.
The Empire Problems's
What did emperor Commodus do in 180 C.E? Bankrupt the treasury and killed his own troops.
What happened to the Next 28 emperors? They were installed by the army, only to be killed off.
What did they rise in between the armies? Didn't have time to defend the empire's borders against attack.
What problems occur in wars? Warfare disrupted production & trade, as well as farmland.
What did the Government do? Government minted more coins to cope with economic problems.
What were the causes? Cause inflation = a rise in prices & a decrease in the value of money.
What were taxes use for? There was higher taxes which was the only way to pay for soldiers needed in war.
Who they taxed? Taxing landowners caused them to abandon land -> this meant less crops & food shortage.
Unsuccessful Reforms
What did Diocletian do? Increased the number of men in the army.
What did he divided? Divided empire into 2 units.
What did he ruled? He ruled the east, another ruled the west.
What failed? His economic reforms failed.
What did Constantine do? Tried to stabilize the empire after the civil wars.
What did he made legal? Made it legal for landowners to chain workers so they didn't leave.
What did he made? Made more jobs hereditary.
What did he move? Moved the capital in the east & called in Constantinople.
What did Theodosius do? Made the east and west separate empires.
What was the East? Byzantine Empire.
What was the West? Roman Empire.
Barbarian Invasions
What tribes entered the empire? Germanic tribes entered the empire.
Why did they entered the empire? Looked for warmer climate, Wanted better grazing land, Wanted Rome's wealth.
From where were they most fleeing? Most were fleeing from the huns = fierce nomadic invaders & warriors.
Warrior Groups
Who were part of the Warrior groups? Warriors, their families and a chief.
Who was compared to who? Poor compared to romans.
What were the differences and similarities of the Warriors groups? Many different Warriors groups -> the only thing that they had in common was Germanic language.
What did Romans considered this tribes? Romans considered these tribes barbarians & thought of their language weird babbling & sounds.
What did the Visigoths do? Captured and sacked rome.
By who was The Huns led? Led by the Attila the hun.
What did the Huns do? Plundered cities in Italy.