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Theatre History 2

Chapter 12

Henrik Ibsen Norwegian playwright, founder of modern realism, wrote: A Doll’s House, and other plays about taboo situations
Realism Sought to convince audiences that stage action represented everyday life and refused to make moral judgments and covered taboo topics
Naturalism Began in France, a subdivision of realism (an extreme form) was more of a “slice of life”
Emile Zola French playwright and most famous proponet of naturalism, wrote: Therese Raquin
“Slice of life A term used for describing naturalistic theatre
Gerhardt Hauptmann Had popular naturalistic plays perfomed at the Freie Buhne, wrote: Before Sunrise, The Lower Depths
Théâtre Libre “Free Theatre” founded in paris by Andre Antoine, revolutionized French Theatre by introducing realistic and Naturalistic playwrights.
André Antoine Founded Theatre Libre, and popularized realism, strove to create “fourth wall” used motivated lighting and was against the star system; worked with amateur actors for ensemble performances
Motivated lighting illumination of stage picture that seems to come from onstage sources i.e. – lamp
Freie Bühne “Free Stage” began in Berlin, dedicated to realism and naturalism, employed professional actors only performed on Sundays (Ottow Brahm was Chairman)
Otto Brahm Chairman of Freie Buhne
Independent Theatre Oporated in Londen, hired professional actors only open Sundays introduced realism and naturalism, responsible for introducing George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw Wrote WIedower’s Houses, was a criteic until he found no plays reflected his views sot he wrote his own ideas on political and Social form
Harley Granville-Barker Actor and playwright who ran Regal Court Theatre and Incorporated Stage Society
Moscow Art Theatre Most influential Theateres dedicated to realism, founded by Konstanin Stanislavski and V.N. Danchenko, became popular with “the Seagull”
Konstantin Stanislavski Most Famous for training performers to act realistically, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre, Directed and acted in many Chekov plays
V. Nemirovich-Danchenko Operated Moscow Art Theatre with Stanislavski
Anton Chekhov Plays are not lonely “realism” but also examples of present day tragicomedy all his plays were produced in the Moscow Art Theatre
Circle of attention (Stanislavski) extent or range of concentration, compared to circle of light on darkened stage
Given circumstances (Stanislavski)- situation which character exists- feels, lighting, setting, expected moments
The magic “if" (Stanislavski) to be able to imagine yourself in any situation
Psychophysical actions (Stanislavski) or purposeful action- the idea that actions can lead one into emotions(Stanislavski) or purposeful action- the idea that actions can lead one into emotions
Symbolism Leading anti-realistic movement, (a reaction to realistic theatre) has almost no plot action and took form of lyrical drama
Richard Wagner A chief influence on symbolist playwrights, with emphasis on myth
Maurice Maeterlinck Most successful symbolist dramatist, argued that theatre should present not outwardly but “a shadow of symbolic forms”
Frank Wedekind wrote: Spring’s Awakening, which combines grotesque with realistic and symbolist
August Strindberg wrote Miss Julie, was prosecuted for blasphemy in “married” , Wrote “a dream Play” which lead to surrealist movement and theatre of the absurd
Théâtre d’Art Founded by Paul Fort, remembered for Maeterlinck’s: The Intruder and The Blind
Paul Fort Organized “theatre d’ Arte”, followed symbolists theories of stage production
Aurélien-Marie Lugné-Poë Acted for Fort and was notorious for presentation in “Ubu the King” by Alfred Jerry
Alfred Jarry writer of Ubu the King, a comic book style take off on Shakespeare’s Julius Ceaser and Macbeth
William Butler Yeats Playwright associated with Abbey theatre, opposed realism, experimented with Japanese drama wrote: The Hawks Well
John Millington Synge Associated with abbey Theatre, created poetic drama in realistic form wrote: Spreading the news
The Abbey Theatre Associated with early symbolist drama, dealt with concerns and myths of Irish
Adolphe Appia First to develop theory of antirealist staging, advocated multidirectional colored light, preferred work to speak for itself. Start of modern stage design, wrote: Music and Art of Theatre and Work of Living Art. Believed in master director.
“Fourth wall removed” Appia’s idea, designed theatre with no proscenium arch
Edward Gordon Craig (Modern staging) deliberately provocative in order to make theories known. Wrote: The Art of Theatre, had a magazine, the Mask. Used platforms and levels , felt star system was weakest element of theatre and believed in Ubermarionette, also, established
Übermarionette “Super Puppet” Craig’s idea, that would allow director complete control of performance
Unit setting Craig’s idea-one basic setting that can represent various locals through movement of its elements with slight addition of properties
Vsevolod Meyerhold Stanislavsky’s counterpart, biggest anti-realistic movement, an original member of Moscow Art Theatre, felt director was more important than star actor, experimented with antirealism, used “found space” wanted to shatter the fourth wall, attempted to tra
Theatricalism Used by Meyerhold-exposed devices of theatre such as how machinery works to make audience aware it’s a performance
Constructivism Used by Meyerhold-sets provided machines for his performers to work on, looked like huge tinker toys, skeletal frames, ramps and stairways.
Max Reinhardt An Eclectic director, know for innovated use of spaced, experimented with adaptations of Elizabethan stage for Shakespeare drama
Yevgeny Vakhtangov Staged most significant work at Moscow Art Theatre, and Eclectic director
Mikhail Chekhov Anton’s nephew, developed a system of acting based on psychological gesture said a performer could created realistic stage portrayal by finding physical characteristics that would trigger internal responses
David Belasco Producer; used realistic techniques to create sensational staging of melodramas
James O’Neill Spent most of his career performing in stage adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo
The Syndicate Group of producers who had a monopoly over American theatre by producing major shows with stars and allowing other theaters to book the shows only through the Sydicate
Minnie Maddern Fiske Opposed syndicate, known for performances in plays by Isben, Shaw and Wilde
Oscar Wilde Playwright: Importance of being Earnest, An Ideal Husband
Henry Irving One of the last great actor managers, most acclaimed English actor, respnsibel for innovations in staging and lighting, played Hamlet for 200 nights, master at gesture and pantomime, excelled in melodrama
Ellen Terry Worked with Henry Irving, brought a beauty and freshness to stage, helped create one of the greatest duos
Beijing Opera (Peking) combines music, theatre and dance, plays involve elaborate and colorful conventions of makeup, movement and voice production
Rabindranath Tagore Philosopher and Social reformer, wrote poems (manasi) works include song, mime, dance and lyrical verse with mysticism. Received Nobel prize in literature, directed and acted in his own plays
Bert Williams Great cakewalker, comedian, writer who put black performers on Broadway in Dahomey and Abyssinia
Lafayette Players Produced a new play every week (an African American stock Co.) consisted of “white” Plays
Created by: avennema