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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Terms

authentication Proving that a user is genuine, and not an imposter.
authentication factors Five elements that can prove the genuineness of a user: whatt you know, what you have, what you are, what you do, and where you are.
bcrypt A popular key stretching password hash algorithm.
behavioral biometrics Authenticating a user by the unique actions that the user performs.
birthday attack An attack that searches for any two digests that are the same.
brute force attack A password attack in which every possible combination of letters, numbers, and characters is used to create encrypted passwords that are matched against those in a stolen password file.
cognitive biometrics Authentication a user through the perception, thought process, and understanding of the user.
common access card (CAC) A U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) smart card used for identification of active-duty and reserve military personnel along with civilian employees and special contractors.
dictionary attack A password attack that creates encrypted versions of common dictionary words and compares them against those in a stolen password file.
federated identity management (FIM) Single sign-on for networks owned by different organizations
geolocation The identification of the location of a person or object using technology.
HMAC-based one-time password (HOTP) A one-time password that changes when a specific event occurs.
hybrid attack A password attack that slightly alters dictionary words by adding numbers to the end of the password, spelling words backward, slightly misspelling words, or including special characters.
key stretching A password hashing algorithm that requires significantly more time than standard hashing algorithms to create the digest.
LM (LAN Manger) hash A cryptographic function found in older Microsoft Windows operating systems used to fingerprint data.
multifactor authentication Using more than one type of authentication credential.
NTLM (New Technology LAN Manager) hash A hash used by modern Microsoft Windows operating systems for creating password digests.
NTLMv2 The current version of the New Technology LAN Manager hash.
one-time password (OTP) An authentication code that can be used only once or for a limited period of time.
password A secret combination of letters, number, and/or characters that only the user should have knowledge of.
PBKDF2 A popular key stretching password hash algorithm.
Personal Identity Verification (PIV) A U.S. government standard for smart cards that covers all government employees.
pre-image attack An attack in which one known digest is compared to an unknown digest.
rainbow tables Large pregenerated data sets of encrypted passwords used in password attacks.
salt A random string that is used in hash algorithms.
single-factor authentication Using one type of authentication credential.
single sign-on (SSO) Using one authentication credential to access multiple accounts or as part of the authentication process.
smart card A card that contains an integrated circuit chip that can hold information used as part of the authentication process.
standard biometrics Using fingerprints or other unique physical characteristics of a person's face, hands, or eyes for authentication.
time-based one-time password (TOTP) A one-time password that changes after a set period of time.
token A small device that can be affixed to a keychain with a window display that shows a code to be used for authentication.
transitive trust A two-way relationship that is automatically created between parent and child domains in a Microsoft Active Directory Forest.
username An identifier of a user logging into a system.
Created by: bnash52