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Chapter 17

Language of Medicine 10th edition

biconvex Consisting of two surfaces that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is a biconvex body.
choroid ciliary body Middle, vascular layer of the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens,and it secretes aqueous humor.
cone Photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse. Cones are responsible for color and central vision.
conjunctiva Delicate membrane lining the undersurface of the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball.
cornea Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball. Derived from Latin corneus, meaning horny, perhaps because as it protrudes outward, it was thought to resemble a horn.
fovea centralis Tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.
fundus of the eye Posterior, inner part of the eye.
iris Pigmented (colored) layer that opens and closes to allow more or less light into the eye. The central opening of the iris is the pupil.
lens Transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye. It bends (refracts) light rays to bring them into focus on the retina.
macula Yellowish region on the retina lateral to and lightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis, which is the area of clearest vision.
optic chiasm Point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain (Latin chiasma means crossing).
optic disc Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.
optic nerve Cranial nerve that carries impulses from the rod and cone cells of the retina to the cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain.
pupil Central opening of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass. It appears dark.
refraction Bending of light rays by the cornea, lens and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina. Refract means to break (-fract) back (re-).
retina Light-sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones).
rod Photoreceptor cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision.
sclera Tough, white outer coat of the eyeball.
thalamus Relay center of the brain. Optic nerve fibers pass through the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex.
vitreous humor Soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
accommodation Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near. the ciliary body adjusts the lens (rounding it) and the pupil constricts. When the eye focuses from near to far, the ciliary body flattens the lens and the pupil dilates
anterior chamber Area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains aqueous humor.
aqueous humor Fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber. A humor (Latin humidus means moist) is any body fluid, including blood and lymph.
blephar/o eyelid
aque/o water
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
conjunctivitis Commonly called pinkeye. Conjunctivitis occurs when blood vessels dilate from allergens like pollen (allergic conjunctivitis), bacterial infection (bacterial conjunctivitis), or virus (viral conjunctivitis).
cor/o pupil
anisocoria Anis/o means unequal. Anisocoria may be an indication of neurological injury or disease.
corne/o cornea (see kerat/o)
cycl/o ciliary body or muscle of the eye
dacry/o tears, tear duct (see lacrim/o)
ir/o, irid/o iris
iritis Characterized by paid, sensitivity to light, and lacrimation. A corticosteroid is prescribed to reduce inflammation.
iridectomy A portion of the iris is removed to improve drainage of aqueous humor or to extract a foreign body.
kerat/o horny, hard; cornea
keratitis Note that kerat/o here does not refer to keratin (protein in skin tissue).
lacrim/o tear, tearduct; lacrimal duct
Lacrimal Pertaining to tea4rs
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
ophthalmologist Medical doctor who specializes in treating disorders of the eye.
opthalmoplegia Paralysis in one eye.
opt/o, optic/o eye, vision
optic Nonmedical professional who can examine eyes to determine vision problems and prescribe lenses; a doctor of optometry (OD).
optician Nonmedical professional who grinds lenses and fits glasses but cannot prescribe lenses.
palpebr/o eyelid
palpebral pertaining to the eyelid.
papill/o optic disc; nipple-like
pipilledema The suffix -edema means swelling. This condition is associated with increased intracranial pressure and hyperemia (increased blood flow) in the region of the optic disc.
phac/o, phak/o lens of the eye
phacoemulsification Technique of cataract extraction using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment (emulsify) the lens and aspirate it from the eye.
aphakia Absence of the lens of the eye. This may be congenital, but most often it is the result of extraction of a cataract (clouded lens) without placement of an artificial lens (pseudophakia).
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
retinitis Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic disorder pigmented scar forms on the retina) that destroys retinal rods. decreased vision and night blindness (nyctalopia) occur.
hypertensive retinopathy Lesions such as narrowing of arterioles, microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates (fluid leakage) are found on examination of the fundus.
scler/o sclera (white of the eye); hard
uve/o uvea; vascular layer of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choroid)
vitre/o glassy
ambly/o dull, dim
amblyopia reduced vision (poor eyesight)
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
glaucoma Here, -oma means mass or collection of fluid (aqueous humor). The term comes from the dull gray-green color of the affected eye in advanced cases.
mi/o smaller, less
miosis Contraction of the pupil. A miotic is a drug (such as pilocarpine that causes the pupil to contract.
mydr/o widen, enlarge
mydriasis Widening of the pupil of the eye. Tropicamide, atropine, and cocaine cause dilation
nyct/o night
nyctalopia -opia means vision; -al comes from Greek ala, meaning blindness. Night blindness is poor vision at night but good vision on bright days. Deficiency of vitamin A lads to nyctalopia.
phot/o light
photophobia Sensitivity to light.
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
scotoma a blind spot. Area of decreased vision surrounded by an area of normal vision; this can result from damage to the retina or the optic nerve.
xer/o dry
-opia vision
hyperopia Hypermetropia (farsightedness).
-opsia vision
hemianopsia Absence of vision in half of the visual field. Stroke victims frequently have damage to the brain on one side of the visual cortex and experience hemianopsia ( the visual loss is on the right or the left visual field of both eyes.).
-tropia to turn
esotropia Inward (eso-) turning of an eye. Exotropia is an outward turning of an eye. These conditions are examples of stabismus (defect in eye muscles so that both eyes cannot be focused on the same point at the same time.)
astigmatism Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye. Abnormal curvature of the eyeball so that rays of light are not focused on a single point on the retina.
hyperopia (hypermetropia) Farsightedness
myopia Nearsightedness; vision for near objects is better than for far.
presbyopia Impairment of vision as a result of old age.
cataract Clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision.
chalazion Small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid
diabetic retinopathy Retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization (new blood vessels form in the retina).
glaucoma Increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retinal and optic nerve with loss of vision.
Blepharitis Inflammation of eyelid, causing redness, crusting, and swelling along lid margins.
Chalazion Ganuloma formed around an inflamed sebaceous gland.
Dacryocystitis Blockage, inflammation, and infection of a nasolacrimal duct and lacrimal sac, causing redness and swelling in the region between the nose and the lower lid.
Ectropion Outward sagging and eversion of the eyelid, leading to improper lacrim
Entropion Inversion of the eyelid, causing the lashes to rub against the eye; corneal abrasion may result
Hordeolum (stye) Infection of a sebaceous gland producing a small, superficial white nodule along lid margin.
Ptosis Drooping of upper lid margin as a result of neuromuscular problems or trauma.
Xanthelasma Raised yellowish plaque on eyelid cased by lipid disorder (xanth/o = yellow, -elasma = plate)
hordeolum (stye or sty) Localized, purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid.
macular degeneration Progressive damage to the macula of the retina.
nystagmus Repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
retinal detachment Two layers of the retina separate from each other.
photopsia bright flashes of light
floaters black spots or filmy shapes, which are vitreous clumps that detach from the retina.
photocoagulation Making pinpoint burns to form scar tissue and seal holes
scleral buckle for large retinal detachments, made of silicone is sutured to the sclera directly over the detached portion of the retina to push the retinal layer together.
pneumatic retinopexy A procedure used in retinal detachments, involving a gas bubble that is injected into the vitreous cavity to put pressure on the area of retinal tear until the retina is reattached.
strabismus Abnormal deviation of the eye.
esotropia Turning inward of one or both pupils; "cross eyes"
exotropia one eye turns outward; wall-eyed Turning to the side or outward of one or both pupils.
hypertropia upward deviation of one eye
hypotropia downward deviation of one eye
amblyopia partial loss of vison or lazy eye
diplopia double vision
fluorescein angiography Process of recording (viewing and photographing) the circulation of a fluorescein dye through the blood vessels of the retina.
ophthalmoscopy Visual examination of the interior of the eye.
slit lamp microscopy Examination of anterior ocular structures under microscopic magnification
visual acuity test Measurement of clearness of vision; assessed by reading letters of decreasing size on an eye chart.
visual field test Measurement of the area (peripheral and central ) Measurement of the area in front of the eye in any part of which an object is seen without moving the eye.
enucleation Removal of the entire eyeball
keratoplasty Surgical repair of the cornea
laser photocoagulation Intense, precisely focused light beam (argon laser) creates an inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels.
LASIK Use of an excimer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
phacoemulsification Ultrasonic vibrations break up the lens, which then is aspirated through the ultrasonic probe.
scleral buckle Suture of a silicone band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina.
vitrectomy Removal of the vitreous humor.
aqueous humor Watery fluid that circulates through the posterior and anterior chambers of the eye.
blepharitis Inflammation of an eyelid.
blepharoptosis Prolapse (sagging) of an eyelid.
conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
anisocoria Pupils are of unequal size.
corneal abrasion Defect in the surface of the cornea.
cycloplegic Pertaining to paralysis of the ciliary muscle (causing paralysis of accommodation).
dacryoadenitis Inflammation of a lacrimal (tear) gland.
iritis Inflammation of the iris.
iridic Pertaining to the iris.
iridectomy Removal of (a portion of) the iris.
keratitis Inflammation of the cornea.
lacrimal Pertaining to tears.
lacrimation The process of forming tears
intraocular Pertaining to within the eye.
ophthalmologist One who specializes in the study of the eye, its disorders and treatment.
ophthalmic Pertaining to the eye.
ophthalmoplegia Paralysis of the eye (muscles).
optic Pertaining to the eye or to vision.
optometrist One who “measures” (examines) eyes and prescribes lenses.
optician One who grinds lenses and fits glasses
palpebral Pertaining to the eyelid
papilledema Swelling of the optic disc (associated with increased intracranial pressure) and hyperemia (increased blood flow).
phacoemulsification Technique of cataract extraction using high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations to remove the clouded lens.
aphakia Absence of the lens of the eye.
pupillary Pertaining to the pupil.
retinitis Inflammation of the retina.
hypertensive retinopathy Disease of the retina associated with (secondary to) high blood pressure.
corneoscleral Pertaining to the cornea and scleral layers of the eye
scleritis Inflammation of the sclera
uveitis Inflammation of the uvea (vascular layer of the eye).
vitreous humor Clear, watery fluid filling the jelly-like mass (vitreous body) that fills the cavity of the eyeball.
amblyopia Dullness of vision (can be caused by poor nutrition, trauma to the eye, or suppression of vision in one eye to avoid diplopia).
diplopia Double vision (the perception of two images of a single object).
glaucoma Disease of the eye marked by increased intraocular pressure.
miosis Condition of contraction of the pupils.
mydriasis Condition of enlargement of the pupils.
nyctalopia Condition of night blindness
photophobia Condition of sensitivity to light.
presbyopia Condition of defective vision with advancing age; loss of accommodation.
scotoma Area of depressed vision surrounded by area of normal vision (blind spot).
xerophthalmia Condition of dry eyes.
hyperopia Farsightedness.
hemianopsia Condition of absence of vision in half of a visual field.
esotropia Condition in which the eyes turn inward.
acoustic Pertaining to hearing or sound.
audiogram Record of hearing as taken by an audiometer.
audiologist Health care professional specializing in the evaluation and rehabilitation of people with hearing loss.
auditory Pertaining to hearing.
aural Pertaining to the ear.
postauricular Pertaining to behind the ear.
cochlear Pertaining to the cochlea (spiral-shaped tube in the inner ear).
mastoiditis Inflammation of the mastoid process (behind the ear).
myringotomy Incision of the eardrum.
myringitis Inflammation of the eardrum.
ossiculoplasty Surgical repair of a middle ear bone.
otic Pertaining to the ear.
otomycosis Abnormal condition of a fungal infection in the ear.
otopyorrhea Discharge of pus from the ear.
otolaryngologist Specialist in the ear and larynx (upper respiratory region).
salpingopharyngeal Pertaining to the eustachian tube and the throat.
stapedectomy Removal of the stapes bone (middle ear bone).
tympanoplasty Surgical repair of the eardrum
vestibulocochlear Pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea of the inner ear. This is the 8th cranial nerve (acoustic nerve).
hyperacusis Abnormally acute sensitivity to sounds.
presbycusis Progressive, bilateral hearing loss occurring with age.
audiometer Instrument to measure the sharpness of hearing.
macrotia Condition of large ears.
keratotomy Incision of the cornea
Outer Ear Pinna or auricle, external auditory canal (meatus), Tympanic membrane.
cerumen yellowish brown, waxy substance, lubricates and protects the ear.
Middle Ear tympanic membrane,(between outer and middle ear) then ossicles; the three small bones, malleus, incus, and stapes...oval window.
Ossices Three small bones, malleus, incus and stapes.
malleus Hammer-shaped, small bone (ossicle) in the middle ear.
incus Small anvil-shaped bone (ossicle) in the middle ear; second ossicle.
stapes Small, stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear; third ossicle
oval window separates the middle from the inner ear, is touched by stapes when and as the stapes moves.
eustachian tube is a canal leading from the middle ear to the pharynx.
labyrinth inner ear, circular, maze-like structure
perilymph Special auditory liquids, found in the cochlea of the inner ear, through which vibrations travel.
endolymph Special auditory liquids, found in the cochlea of the inner ear, through which vibrations travel.
organ of Corti Present in the cochlea of the inner ear, is a sensitive auditory receptor area; in this organ, tiny hair cells receive vibrations from the auditory liquids and relay the sound waves to auditory nerve fibers.
auditory nerve fibers Pick the sound vibrations from the auditory liquids and relay them to the auditory center of the cerebral cortex, where impulses are "heard."
vestibule Central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the cochlea and semicircular canals
Inner Ear Cochlea, Auditory liquids and receptors in the organ of Corti, Auditory nerve fibers. To Cerebral cortex
Auditory canal Channel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum.
auditory meatus Auditory canal.
auditory nerve fibers Carry impulses form the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex). These fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
vestibulocochlear nerve cranial nerve VIII
auditory tube Channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube.
auricle Flap of the ear; the protruding part of the extyernal ear, or pinna.
cerumen Waxy substance secreted by the external ear; also called earwax.
cochlea Snail shell-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptors cells.
endolymph Fluid within the labyrinth of the inner ear.
incus Second ossicle (bone of the middle ear; incus means anvil.
labyrinth Maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals.
malleus First ossicle of the middle ear; malleus means hammer.
organ of Corti Sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear.
semicircular canals Passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium.
stapes Third ossicle of the middle ear. Stapes means stirrup.
saccule Membranous sac (saccule and utricle) contains fluid, endolymph, as well as sensitive hair cells. Located in the semicircular canals
utricle Membranous sac (saccule and utricle) contains fluid, endolymph, as well as sensitive hair cells. Located in the semicircular canals
salping/o uterine (fallopian) tube; oviduct; auditory (eustachian)
ot/o ear
nyct/o night
-tropia to turn
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum); middle ear
uve/o uvea, vascular layer of eye (iris, choroid, ciliary body)
-cusis hearing
-meter measure
acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing; the sense of hearing
audit/o hearing; as in auditory
aur/o, auricul/o ear (see ot/o), as in aural
cochle/o cochlea
mastoid/o mastoid process; the posterior portion of the temporal bone extending downward behind the external auditory meatus.
Mastoiditis The mastoid process is the posterior portion of the temporal bone extending downward behind the external auditory meatus. Mastoiditis, cased by bacterial infection, spreads from the middle ear.
myring/o eardrum, tympanic membrane (see tympan/o) such as myringotomy or myringitis
ossicul/o ossicle
-otia ear condition
macrotia Abnormally large ears; congenital anomaly.
acoustic neuroma Benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve in the brain.
cholesteatoma Collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the middle ear.
deafness Loss of the ability to hear
Meniere disease Disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure within the cochlea (cochlear hydrops) and semicircular canals (vestibular hydrops).
otitis media Inflammation of the middle ear
Serous otitis media Noninfectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of clear fluid.
otosclerosis Hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear
tinnitus Sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears.
vertigo Sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects.
audiometry Testing the sense of hearing
audiometer An audiometer is an electrical device that delivers acoustic stimuli of specific frequencies to determine a patients hearing loss for each frequency.
cochlear implant procedure Surgical insertion of a device that allows sensorineural hearing impaired persons to understand speech.
ear thermometry Measurement of the temperature of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum.
otoscopy Visual examination of the ear canal with an otoscope.
tuning fork test test of ear conduction using a vibration source (turning fork)
AD right ear
AOM acute otitis media
AS left ear (Latin, auris sinistra)
EENT eyes, ears, nose, and throat
ENG electronystagmography- a test of the balance mechanism of the inner ear by assessing eye movements.
nystagmus rapidly twitching eye movements
ENT ears, nose, and throat
ETD eustachian tube dysfunction
HEENT head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat
PE tube pressure-equalizing tube-a polyethylene ventilating tube placed in the eardrum (to treat recurrent episodes of acute otitis media)
SOM serous otitis media
dacryoadenitis Inflammation of tear glands.
miotic Drug that causes the pupil of the eye to contract.
nyctalopia Night blindness or difficult, poor vision at night.
retinitis pigmentosa Inflammation of the retina with pigmentation and progressive scarring of tissue
tonometry Measurement of tension and pressure within the eye; glaucoma test.
suppurative otitis media Infectious inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation.
Created by: Hobbskg