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Med Term Chapter 4

Dooley's Med Term Chapter 4

tendon narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bone
skeletal muscles attach to bones to make movement possible
smooth muscle muscles located in the walls of digestive tract, blood vessels, ducts
cardiac muscle forms the wall of the heart
myocardial refers to heart muscle
kinesiology study of muscular mactivity or movement
contraction tightening of a muscle; it becomes smaller & tighter
relaxation muscle becomes longer & thinner; muscle in its original form
tonus normal muscle tension
neuromuscular refers to the relationship between nerve and muscle
abduction movement away from the midline
adduction movement toward the midline
flexion decreases an angle as in bending
elevation raises a body part
extension increases an angle as in straightening a joint
depression lowers a body part
rotation turns a bone on its own axis
circumduction turns at the far end
supination turns the palm upward
pronation turns the pam downward
dorsiflexion bends the foot upward at the ankle
plantar flexion bends the foot down at the ankle
muscle origin place where a muscle begins; more fixed attachment; nearest the midline
muscle insertion place where a muscle ends; the more moveable end of a muscle; farthest from the midline
rectus means straight
oblique slanted or at an angle
transverse crosswise
sphincter ringlike that constricts the opening of a passageway
biceps pertaining to two muscle divisions
triceps pertaining to three muscle divisions
quadriceps pertaining to four muscle divisions
fascia fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, & separates muscle
my/o muscle
myos/o muscle
fasci/o fascia
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendon
orthopedic surgeon treats injuries and disorders of bone, joints, muscle & tendons
rheumatologist treats disorders that involve inflammation of muscles
neurologist treats the cause of paralysis & similar muscular disorders where there is loss of function
lateral toward the side
medial toward the midline
fasciitis inflammation of the fascia
tenalgia pain in a tendon
tendonitis inflammation in a tendon
atrophty muscle weakness and wasting
myalgia muscle pain
myolysis degeneration of muscle
myositis inflammation of a muscle
polymyositis chronic, progressive disease that causes muscle weakness & atrophy
myomalacia abnormal softening of muscle tissue
myosclerosis abnormal hardening of muscle tissue
myorrhexis rupture of a muscle
atonic lack of normal muscle tone
dystonia condition of having abnormal muscle tone
hypertonia excessive muscle tone
hypotonia diminished muscle tone
ataxia inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movement
dystaxia difficulty controlling voluntary
contracture abnormal shortening of muscle tissue making the muscle resistant to stretching
spasm crmp; sudden, violent contraction of a muscle
spasmodic torticollis AKA 'wryneck'; stiff neck due to spasms that cause the neck to pull the head to one side
kinesia movement
bradykinesia extreme slowness of movement
dyskensia distortion or impairment of voluntary movement
hyperkinesia AKA hyperactivity; abnormally increased motor function
hypokinesia abnormally decreased motor function
tardive dyskinesia dyskinesia that appears as a side effect of long term use of certain antipsychotic drugs
clonus violent movement
myoclonus spasm or twitching of muscles
singultus myoclonus of the diaphragm; hiccups
myasthenia muscle weakness from any cause
muscular dystrophy inherited muscle disorder; causes muscle weakness without involvement of the nervous system
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy MD that appears in early childhood andprogresses slowly; survival rate rare past late twenties
Becker's Muscular dystrophy appears in adolescence or early adulthood; less severe; slower progression; life expectancy mid to late adulthood
fibromyalgia chronic disorder; unknown cause; aching pain, tender points, fatigue; not life threatening
ergonomics study of human factors that affect the design of tools and the work environment
myofascial referrs to muscle and fascia
carpal tunnel syndrome pain, burning, and tingling in the fingers caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel at the wrist
radiculopathy nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots; can occur in the neck or back
epicondylitis inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
plantar fasciitis inflammation of the fascia of the plantar surface (sole) of the foot
sprain injury to a joint usually involving a stretched or torn ligament
strain injury to the body of a muscle or attachment of the tendon; usually involves a stretched or torn muscle or tendon
shin splint pain caused by the muscle tearing tearing away from the tibia
paresis weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle
hemiparesis slight paralysis of one side of the body
paralysis loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements; due to disease or injury to the nerve supply
paraplegia paralysis of both legs
paraplegic a person sufferin gfrom paraplegia
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities
cardiplegia paralysis of the muscles of the heart
physical therapy treatment to prevent disability or restore function through the use of exercise, heat, massage
tenectomy surgical removal of a lesion from a tendon or tendon sheath
tenodesis suture the end of a tendon to a bone
tenotomy surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity
tenoplasty surgical repair of a tendon
TENORRHAPHY suturing of a divided tendon
myectomy surgical removal of a portion of a muscle
myoplasty surgical repair of a muscle
myorrhaphy to suture a muscle wound
ADL activities of daily living; EX: bathing, brushing teeth, hair; dressing, eating , toileting
range of motion exercises (ROM) full range of a muscle's movement; help strength, flexibility, mobility
Created by: dgdooley