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GEHS US Hist/Govt.

GEHS U.S. History/Govt. Review

eminent domain The right of the state (government) to take private property for public use for the good of the public.
martial law The body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or natural disasters such as a Hurricane)
rule of law Principle that the law (the Constitution) applies to everyone even those who govern.
Supremacy Clause A clause in the U.S. Constitution that declares the constitution, laws, and treaties of the federal government to be the supreme law of the land.
Freedom of Speech the right to express oneself, with words or actions (verbally or symbolically). Guaranteed in the 1st Amendment to the US Constitution; exception applied when it endangers others
Freedom of Religion People shall be free to exercise their religion, and government may not establish a religion.
Establishment Clause Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
Free Exercise Clause Clause in the First Amendment that states that Congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion.
Civic Values Principles and beliefs that people in a society hold in common for common purposes. (i.e. equality, human dignity, voting)
Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the constitution(ratified in 1791)
Freedom of Press The right to publish newspapers, magazines, and books found in the 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
popular sovereignty The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Freedom of Assembly The right peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances
Expressed/Enumerated Powers Powers that congress has that are speciflcally listed in the U.S. Constitution. (i.e. maintain an army, collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce, make treaties, declare war, regulate immigration, maintain post offices)
Implied Powers Powers assumed by the federal government, that are assumed to be necessary and proper to carry out its delegated powers into effect.
Necessary and Proper/Elastic Clause Clause of the Constitution setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress has the right to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out all national powers.
Inherent Powers Powers that the national government may exercise simply because it's a government such as helping with national disasters or purchasing territory from foreign countries.
Reserved Powers Powers not delegated to the U.S. by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. Examples: setting curriculum for public education, capital punishment, and maintaining state highways.
Concurrent Powers Powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments. Examples of this would be the power to tax, the power to hold elections, the power to create local courts.
10th Amendment Powers not given to the United States are given to states or people--which Amendment is this?
2nd Amendment Right to keep and bear arms, well regulated militia
3rd Amendment No quartering of Soldiers
4th Amendment No unreasonable searches or siezures
5th Amendment No double jeopardy/ no self incrimination--due process
Due Process of Law Guarantee that laws will be fair and reasonable and that citizens suspected of breaking the law will be treated fairly.
6th Amendment Right to a fair, speedy trial
7th Amendment Your right to a jury trial by your peers in civil and criminal cases
8th Amendment No excessive bail, and fines; cruel and unusual punishment
9th Amendment Power Reserved to the People
Political Party Organization that tries to influence government policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office.
Party Platform List of policy positions a party endorses and pledges its elected officials to enact--these policies are usually written and describe the beliefs of a particular party.
Public Opinion Feelings, thoughts, and postions that people collectively have on political or social issues
Primary Election A preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen for a particular political party.
Nominating Convention A meeting of delegates/representatives from each state that belong to a particular political party. Delegates from each state vote on the candidate they want to represent the party as a whole.
Political Campaign An attempt to get info to voters that will persuade them to elect a candidate or not elect an opponent
United Nations (UN) International org. chartered ihn 1945 to promote world peace and resolove conflicts between natinos
NATO an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Red Cross international program that provides relief for those in time of war and diaster
Mercantilism economic system of trading nations used from about the 1500's to the 1700's; held that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth. For example the American colonies exist for the benefit of the England (The Mother Country).
18th Amendment/Volstead Act Passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
Supply and Demand An economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it and depending on how much of the good is available.
Assembly Line In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Henry Ford This individual began using the assembly lines to mass produce cars.
Scarcity The condition that results from limited resources combined with unlimited wants.
War Industries Board Government agency to improve efficiency in war-related industries during World War I.
The New Deal The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the Great Depression by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Cost Benefit Analysis A method of evaluating rules, regulations, and government programs by weighing their potential costs against their potential benefits to society.
Minimum Wage Laws Accomplishment of the New Deal--raises wage of unskilled workers therefore raising the quantity of labor supplied and reduce the quantity demanded
Anti-Trust Laws Laws to minimize unfair competition. Illegal to conspire to fix prices, allocate customers or markets--no more monopolies!
Trust A group of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service--process used to create a monopoly.
EPA An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment--created in 1970--Goes by the name Environmental Protection Agency
Social Security Administration New Deal program which set-up pensions for older Americans
AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies
Farm Subsidies Paying Federal monies to aid farmers--the premise operates on the notion that farmers not to grow certain crops so as to reduce supply and increase price.
Economic Sanctions Boycotts, embargoes, and other economic measures that one country uses to pressure another country into changing its policies.
Medicare A program created under Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Society" in 1965 that provides medical and hospitilazation insurance for the elderly.
Medicaid A federal and state program that uses general Federal revenues to fund health care for the poor, disabled, and families with dependant or disabled children.
Federalism Political system practiced in the United States in which authority is shared between a Central/Federal government and various State governments
Tax Credit Monetary incentive provided by the government in the form of a tax break.
Deficit The economic gap between what the government spends and what it takes in through taxes and revenue in a given year (i.e. the government spends more than it earns in a year).
Debt The economic condition that occurs when a government accumulates yearly deficits.
CCC Civilian Conservation Corps (1933)- A New Deal Relief program during the Great Depression in which men between the ages of 18 and 25 volunteered to be placed in camps to work on regional environmental projects; disbanded by FDR during WW II.
WPA Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII.
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority: New Deal Program that built dams to provide cheap electric power to seven southern states; set up schools and health centers. This program created jobs for many people out of work during the Great Depression.
Dust Bowl A drought in western Kansas and Oklahoma, Northern Texas, and Eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region during the 1930s. Many farmers left the midwest and migrated to California.
Spanish American War U.S. helped Cuba gain freedom from Spain -> Causes: de Lome letter is intercepted and published, it insults McKinley; U.S.S. Maine explodes in Cuban port, killing 260
Imperialism Term used to refer to actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over smaller or weaker nations.
Phillipine Insurrection Filipino people rebel against U.S. occupation of the Phillipines following the United States defeating Spain in the Spanish-American War.
Panama Canal Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America and helped promote American trade.
Open Door Policy A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Roosevelt Corollary President Teddy Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force if necessary.
Big Stick Diplomacy Foreign/Diplomatic policy developed under President Teddy Roosevelt where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary.
Dollar Diplomacy Foreign/Diplomatic policy used by President Taft; emphasized using economic power and business investment (rather than the threat of military force) to influence Latin American governments.
homefront Means back in america; was what Americans did to help the war effort during World Wars I and II.
Victory Garden A home vegetable garden created to boost food production during World War II. Promoted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a way to conserve resources on the homefront during the war.
Franklin D. Roosevelt President of the US during Great Depression and World War II.
conscientious objector Person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare. This group of people drew criticism from society during World Wars I and II for not participating in what was considered a "patriotic manner".
fireside chat Roosevelt effectively used the radio to speak directly to the nation to help instill confidence in the government. He used this to explain to the American people in simply language how the govt. was going to bring America out of the Great Depression.
Stock Market place where people buy or sell shares in the ownership of a company
Bonds notes issued from the government, which promise to pay back a loan with interest.
Real Estate land and any structures that are on it, such as a house or any other building. Often used as investment.
Brown v. Board of Education court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
Little Rock Nine nine African-American students were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High in 1957 during the Civil Rights Movement.
Martin Luther King Jr. United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968). Led Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Montgomery Bus Boycott protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 law banned literacy tests and other laws that kept African Americans from registering to vote
Betty Friedan She was a leader in the modern feminist movement in the 1960s. She wrote "The Feminist Mystique." Founded NOW
NOW National Organization of Women; organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women. Founded by Betty Friedan
ERA Equal Rights Amendment; a proposed amendment that would ban any discrimination based on sex. Although defeated, the popularity of the amendment showed how far the feminists had come.
Title IX federal legislation that prohibited discrimination in education whether in academics or athletics
Fundamental Freedoms Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly and Religion
Electoral College The system used to elect the President according to the Constitution.
Rosie the Riveter Symbolic figure representing women's roles in the war effort.
Marshall Plan US policy to give economic aid to countries to prevent them from becomming Communist at the start of the Cold War.
Iron Curtain A line of borders separating Communist and Capitalist countries in Europe during the Cold War.
Berlin Blockade/Berlin Airlift USSR blockade of West Berlin during the Cold War and the US effort to break the blockade.
Mao Zedong Leader of the Communist revolution in Chinese Civil War.
Soviet Bloc The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed communist regimes after WW2 and which were dominated by the Soviet Union
Mr. Abromeit Teacher who can't possibly be as good a fisherman as he thinks he is.
Created by: webera