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# Chapter 5- Secutity

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) | A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES. |

Algorithm | Procedures based on a mathematical formula used to encrypt and decrypt the data. |

Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm | Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys. |

Block cipher | A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time. |

Blowfish | A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits. |

Ciphertext | Data that has been encrypted. |

Cleartext | Unencrypted data. |

Cryptography | The science of transforming information into a secure form so that unauthorized persons cannot access it. |

Data Encryption Standard (DES) | A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and encrypts data in 64-bit blocks. |

Decryption | The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext. |

Diffie-Hellman (DH) | A key exchange that requires all parties to agree upon a large prime number and related integer so that the same key can be separately created. |

Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (DHE) | A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses different keys. |

Digest | The unique digital fingerprint created by a one-way hash algorithm. |

Digital signature | An electronic verification of the sender. |

Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) | An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys. |

Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) | A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses elliptic curve cryptography instead of prime numbers in its computation. |

Encryption | The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext. |

Ephemeral key | A temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded. |

GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) | Free and open-source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt data. |

Hardware Security Module (HSM) | A secure cryptographic processor. |

Hash | An algorithm that creates a unique digital fingerprint. |

Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) | A hash function that is applied to both the key and the message. |

In-band | Exchanging secure information within normal communication channels. |

Key | A mathematical value entered into a cryptographic algorithm to produce encrypted data. |

Key exchange | The process of sending and receiving secure cryptographic keys. |

Message Digest (MD) | A common hash algorithm with several different versions. |

Message Digest 5 (MD5) | The current version of MD. |

Non-repudiation | The process Of proving that a user performed an action. |

One-time pad (OTP) | Combining plaintext with a random key to create cipher text that cannot be broken mathematically. |

Out-of-band | Exchanging secure information outside the normal communication channels. |

Perfect forward secrecy | Public key systems that generate random public keys that are different for each session. |

Plaintext | Cleartext data that is to be encrypted and decrypted by a cryptographic algorithm. |

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) | A commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt files and messages. |

Private key | An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected. |

Private key cryptography | Cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message. |

Public key | An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected. |

Public key cryptography | Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys. |

Quantum cryptography | A type of asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop ,and share keys. |

RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) | A hash algorithm that uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process. |

RC4 | An RC stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length. |

RSA | The most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm. |

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) | A secure hash algorithm that creates more secure hash values than Message Digest (MD) algorithms. |

Sponge function | A cryptographic function that applies a process on the input that has been padded with additional characters until all characters are used. |

Steganography | Hiding the existence of data within another type of file. |

Stream cipher | An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character. |

Symmetric cryptographic algorithm | Encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message. |

Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) | A symmetric cipher that was designed to replace DES. |

Trusted Platform Module (TPM) | A chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services. |

Twofish | A derivation of the Blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong. |

Whole disk | encryption Cryptography that can be applied to entire disks. |

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