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Chapter 5- Secutity

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES.
Algorithm Procedures based on a mathematical formula used to encrypt and decrypt the data.
Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys.
Block cipher A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.
Blowfish A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits.
Ciphertext Data that has been encrypted.
Cleartext Unencrypted data.
Cryptography The science of transforming information into a secure form so that unauthorized persons cannot access it.
Data Encryption Standard (DES) A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and encrypts data in 64-bit blocks.
Decryption The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext.
Diffie-Hellman (DH) A key exchange that requires all parties to agree upon a large prime number and related integer so that the same key can be separately created.
Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (DHE) A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses different keys.
Digest The unique digital fingerprint created by a one-way hash algorithm.
Digital signature An electronic verification of the sender.
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys.
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses elliptic curve cryptography instead of prime numbers in its computation.
Encryption The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext.
Ephemeral key A temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded.
GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) Free and open-source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt data.
Hardware Security Module (HSM) A secure cryptographic processor.
Hash An algorithm that creates a unique digital fingerprint.
Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) A hash function that is applied to both the key and the message.
In-band Exchanging secure information within normal communication channels.
Key A mathematical value entered into a cryptographic algorithm to produce encrypted data.
Key exchange The process of sending and receiving secure cryptographic keys.
Message Digest (MD) A common hash algorithm with several different versions.
Message Digest 5 (MD5) The current version of MD.
Non-repudiation The process Of proving that a user performed an action.
One-time pad (OTP) Combining plaintext with a random key to create cipher text that cannot be broken mathematically.
Out-of-band Exchanging secure information outside the normal communication channels.
Perfect forward secrecy Public key systems that generate random public keys that are different for each session.
Plaintext Cleartext data that is to be encrypted and decrypted by a cryptographic algorithm.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) A commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt files and messages.
Private key An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected.
Private key cryptography Cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message.
Public key An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected.
Public key cryptography Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys.
Quantum cryptography A type of asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop ,and share keys.
RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) A hash algorithm that uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process.
RC4 An RC stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length.
RSA The most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm.
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) A secure hash algorithm that creates more secure hash values than Message Digest (MD) algorithms.
Sponge function A cryptographic function that applies a process on the input that has been padded with additional characters until all characters are used.
Steganography Hiding the existence of data within another type of file.
Stream cipher An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character.
Symmetric cryptographic algorithm Encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message.
Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) A symmetric cipher that was designed to replace DES.
Trusted Platform Module (TPM) A chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services.
Twofish A derivation of the Blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong.
Whole disk encryption Cryptography that can be applied to entire disks.
Created by: tblass