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History chapter 21

lesson 1

Gilded Age highlights the inequality between wealthy business owners who profited from the industrial revolution and workers who often labored in under terrible conditions for little pay
Political Machines powerful organizations that used both legal and illegal methods to get their candidates in office, stuffed ballot boxes, payed people to vote for their candidates,bribed voter counters
Bosses ran political machines
Tammany Hall most notorious political machine
William Marcy Tweed boss of Tammany Hall
Members of congress took bribes to allowed the union Pacific railway to receive government funds
Thomas Jefferson 1st to reward supporters with jobs
Rutherford B. Hayes made minor reforms such as firing a powerful member of the New York republican political machine
James A. Garfield attempted reforms/ was shot twice
Charles Guiteau shot Garfield
Chester A. Arthur became president after Garfield was shot / backed the pendleton act
Progressives reformers that were also working to improve society in the late 1800s
Muckrakers journalists that vividly described problems in US society
McClure's Mazazine exposed corruption in city governments
Lincoln Steffens wrote the McClure's Magazines
Ida B. Tarbell wrote articles criticizing the unfair business practices of the standard oil company
Upton Saintclair wrote the Jungle that exposed unsanitary practices in the meat processing industry
Susan Blow opened 1st american public kindergarten in St. Louis in 1873
John Dewey key supporter of early childhood educations
Joseph McCormack worked with the american medical association and brought local medical organizations in 1901
Jacob Riis wrote how the other half lives
17th Amendment allowed Americans to vote for US senators/ passed in 1913
Direct Primary voters choose canadietes for public office directly / favored by reformers
Recall remove official from term early
Initiative allowed voters to propose a new law by collecting signatures for a petition
Referendum permitted voters to approve or reject a law that had already been proposed or past by a government body
Robert M La Folette decreased the power of politcal machines and use university professoes and other experts to help write new laws and work in state agencies /WI republican govenor
Spoils System practice of giving jobs to the winning candidates' suporters
Pendleton Civil Service Act set up a merit system for awarding federal jobs
Created by: Ella!!