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MT Eye Chp 12

Medical Terminology Chapter 12 -EYE

aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjuctiv/o conjunctiva (to join together)
corne/o, karat/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body (circle)
ir/o, irid/o iris (colored circle)
lacrim/o, dacry/o tear
ocul/o, opthalm/o, opt/o eye
phac/o, phak/o lens (lenitl)
phot/o light
presby/o old age
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (hard)
vitre/o glassy
-opia condition of vision
anterior chamber fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris
aqueous humor water liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens
canal of Schlemn duct in the anterior chamber that carries filtered aqueous humor to the veins and bloodstream
choroid vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
ciliary body ring of muscle behind the periphreal iris that controls the power of the lens
ciliary muscle smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability
ciliary processes epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
conjunctiva joining together; mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and ourter surface of the eyeball
cornea transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
eyelid (palpebra) moveable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
fovea centralis pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision (fovea=pit)
fundus (base) interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curvature at the back of the eye)
glands of Zeis oil glands surrounding the eyelashes
meibomian glands oil glands located alon the rim of the eyelids
iris colored circle
lacrimal gland gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
lens transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
lens capsule capsule that encloses the lens
macula lutea (macula) central region of the retina responsible for central vision
nasolacrimal duct passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
optic disk exit site of retinal nerve fibers as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins
optic nerve nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain
posterior chamber space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aqueous fluid
pupil black circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
retina innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
cones cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to light
rods rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light
sclera tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
trabecular meshwork mesh-like structure in the anterior chamber that filters the aquaous humor as it flows into the canal of Schlemn
vitreous jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
asthenopia eyestrain
blepharospasm involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding they eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
diplopia double vison
exophthalmous, exophthalmus abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
lacrimation secretion of tears
nystagmus involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball
photophobia extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light
scotoma blind spot in vision
refractive errors defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing and improper focus on the retina
astigmatism distorted vision caused by and oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina
hyperopia farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina
myopia nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays fall short of the proper focus on the retina
presbyopia impaired vision owing to old-age loss of accommodation
accomodation ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
ambylopia decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that can occur as a result strabismus, refractive errors
aphakia absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid
blepharochalasis, dermatochalasis baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of they eyelid when the eyes are open (chalasis=a slackening)
blepharoptosis, ptosis drooping of the eyelid usually caused by paralysis
chalazion chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid
cataract opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
conjuctivitis pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva
dacryoadentis inflamation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis inflamation of the tear sac
diabetic retinopathy disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization), leading to scarring and loss of vision
ectropion outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
epiphora abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct
glaucoma group of disease of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
iritis inflammation of the iris
keratitis inflammation of the corena
macular degeneration breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula
pseudophakia eye in which the natural lense is replaced with an artificial lense implant
pterygium fibrous growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea
retinal detachment separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
retinitis inflammation of the retina
strabismus crossed eyes
heterotropia both eyes deviate
esotropia right or left eye deviates inward toward the nose
exotropia right or left eye deviates outward away from the nose
trichiasis misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea
distance visual acuity measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance
fluorescein angiography visualization and photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein, circulates through the eye
ophthalmoscopy use of an opthlamoscope to view the interior of the eye
refraction measurement of refractive errors using a phoropter to determine best corrected vision and prescription for eye glasses or contact lenses
phoropter instrument that holds corrective lenses in front of the eye to determine optical correction
slit-lamp biomicroscopy use of a tabletop microscope to examine the eye, especially the cornea, lens, fluids, and membranes
sonography use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye such as foreign bodies or a detached retina
tonometry use of a tonometer to measure intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma
blepharoplasty surgical repair of an eyelid
cataract extraction excision of a cloudy lense from the eye
cryoretinopexy, cryopexy use of intense cold to seal a hole or tear in the retina; used to treat retinal detachment
dacryocystectomy excision of a lacrimal sac
enucleation excision of an eyeball
iridectomy excision of a portion of iris tissue
iridotomy incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow for drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma
keratoplasty corneal transplant; replacement of a diseased or scarred cornea with a healthy one from a matched donor
laser surgery use of a laser to make incision or destroy tissues
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism
intraocular lens (IOL) implant implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
phacoemulsification use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract with aspiration and removal
scleral buckling surgery to treat retinal detachment
trabeculectomy removal of a portion of the trabecular meshwork to increase the flow of aqueous humor from the eye
contact lens small plastic curved disk with optical correction that fits over the cornea
eye instillation introduction of a medicated solution in the eye
eye irrigation washing of the eye with water or other fluid
antibiotic opthalmic solution antimicrobial agent in solution, used to treat bacterial infections
cycloplegic agent that paralyzes the ciliary muscle and powers of accomodation
mydriatic agent that causes dialation of the pupil
miotic agent that causes the pupil to contract
Created by: mh