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Lymbic system neuro

WVSOM lymbic system neuro

When you lesion the limbic system do you still have short term memory? yes
What are the structures of the limbic system concerned with? cognitive and visceral responses to emotion, processes involved with memory
What are the structures belonging to the limbic system? cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, amygdale, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, anterior and medial thalamic nuclei
Where is hippocampus? temporal lobe deep to parahippocampal gyrus
Where is the amygdala? temporal lobe, deep to the uncus, anterior to hippocampus
What is the purpose of Papez circuit? permits a cognitive and visceral response to emotion, aids in putting info into long term memory
State the Papez circuit: info from neocortex or thalamus>cingulated gyrus>hippocampus and amygdale> project through fornix>mammilary bodies>medial and anterior thalamic nuclei>back to neocortex
What is Korsakoff’s syndrome? brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain, can be caused by chronic alcoholism because alcohol messes with thiamine
What are the 3 layers of the hippocampus? striatum oriens = proximal axons, striatum pyramidal = somata, striatum radiatum = dendrites
How are pyramidal cells in hippocampus arranged and how do they travel? poly-synaptic loop ; axonal projections from entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus
State the hippocampal circuitry: entorhinal cortex>dentate gyrus>CA3(can go to fornix and to mammillary bodies)>CA1>subiculum>back to entorhinal cortex>associational neocortical areas
In what layers of the hippocampus are GABAergic cells found? in all layers
Where the synaptic connections between are pyramidal cells most numerous? hippocampus
What is the function of hippocampus? necessary for processing and storing explicit memory for long term storage
What are the two classifications of memory? explicit and implicit
Does the hippocampus deal with implicit memory? no
What is implicit memory? motor function, perceptual skills
What is explicit memory? factual knowledge like people places and things
What is consolidation? process done by the hippocampus necessary for converting short term to long term memory
Is memory stored in the hippocampus? no
Where is memory stored? cerebral cortex
What is the result of damage to hippocampus or output circuits? inability to form new longterm explicit memory but short term memory stays intact
What happens when you get a hippocampus lesion on both sides? loose ability to have space memories
What happens when you get a hippocampus lesion on one side? nothing
What are space memories and where are space memories stored? memories of where things are; hippocampus
What are the two types of glutamate receptors and where are they found? AMPA and NMDA receptors; post synaptic membrane of excitatory synapses
What opens the AMPA receptors? glutamate binding
What opens NMDA receptors? glutamate binding but only after signal from AMPA receptors
Which is the small depolarization AMPA or NMDA? AMPA
What is the result of adding or removing AMPA receptors? adding = learning, removing= unlearning
When a synapse is made more functional what has it undergone? LTP longterm potentiation
When a synapse is made less functional what has it undergone? LTD longterm depression
How do you enhance synapses? add AMPA receptors
When does LTP occur? after a burst of high frequency action potentials in the pre-synaptic neuron
How do you reduce synapses efficiency? remove AMPA receptors
When does LTD occur? after low frequency action potentials in pre-synaptic neuron
Generation of new dendritic spines is an additional mechanism underlying what? learning
Why do axon spines protrude out and why do they occur? to increase synaptic efficiency; LTP
Where is the Amygdala located? temporal lobe, deep to the uncus, anterior to hippocampus
How is the Amygdala shaped? like an almond
What is the uncus? a protrusion on the ventral surface of the brain caused by the Amygdala
What does the Amygdala consist of? a collection of neuronal nuclei
What is the stria terminalis? a pathway from the amygdala to the hypothalamus
What do the efferents from the amygdala go to? hypothalamus and cortical areas (particularly cingulated gyrus)
What is the link between sensory stimuli and emotion? Amygdala
What mediates inborn and acquired emotional responses such as fear, anxiety, and sexuality? Amygdala
What is the result of stimulating the Amygdala? anxiety and fear reactions along with physical responses (increase HR, increased respiration, papillary dilation
How are autonomic responses mediated? connectinos of Amygdala with hypothalamus
How are conscious feelings mediated? connections with cingulated gyrus and prefrontal cortex
What is the result of bilateral lesions of the Amygdala? placidity, flat affect; do not respond to threatening situations
What is Hyperorality? examine things with mouth
What is Hypermetamorphosis? compulsion to intensively explore immediate environment
What is Kluver-bucy syndrome the result of? bilateral damage to the Amygdala
What are the symptoms of Kluver- Bucy syndrome? hyperorality, hypermetamorphosis, placidity and fearlessness, hyperphagia, hypersexuality
What is hyperphagia? excessive eating, even when not hungry, may eat inappropriate objects
Created by: hagerman