Test Android StudyStack App
Please help StudyStack get a grant! Vote here.
or...
Reset Password Free Sign Up

Free flashcards for serious fun studying. Create your own or use sets shared by other students and teachers.


incorrect cards (0)
correct cards (0)
remaining cards (0)
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the Correct box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the Incorrect box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

Correct box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards



Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Endocrine system

endocrine problems

QuestionAnswer
S/S Hypothyroidism  Extreme fatigue Dry skin, brittle nails, hair loss Cold intolerant Husky voice or hoarseness Fluid retention Weight gain Constipation Dull mental process, low b/p Menstrual problems
labs for Hypothyroidism  History and PE Thyroid function tests Elevated TSH Low T3 and T4 Thyroid scan Radioactive Iodine uptake test
Nursing interventions for Hypothyroidism  V/S Warm environment Alternate activity with rest Increase fluid intake to 2L/d High fiber diet Emotional support Teach life long Rx regime Avoid sedative or hypnotics Teach about RX *VIP! Look at S/S, then select your actions
Medication for hypothyroidism  Synthyroid (thyroid replacement hormone) Take on an empty stomach each am. (1 hr before breakfast)
Complications of hypothyroidism  Myxedema Coma Atherosclerosis Hyperthyroid (if too much RX) Hypoglycemia Thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s)
Nursing Diagnoses for hypothyroidism  Activity intolerance Self care deficit Risk for injury Altered body image Altered bowel elimination: Constipation
Hypothyroidism  Goiter- Decreased metabolic rate Often confused with the normal aging decline Caution use of hypnotics or sedatives Myxedema (hypothyroidism) due to a deficiency of thyroid hormone. (Adult form) Cretinism= infant form
Hyperthyroidism  Increased metabolic rate r/t increased circulating thyroid hormone Causes: Grave’s disease pg.890, emotional shock, stress, infection Thyroid Storm= most serious results in heart failure, mania, fever Goiter
hyperthyroidism  Avoid OTC that contain IODINE: cough syrups, bronchodilators, salt substitutes
S/S hyperthyroidism  Nervousness Hyperexcitable Palpitations Hand tremors Rapid pulse Insomnia Heat intolerance Severe weight loss and increase appetite Amenorrhea Osteoporosis exophthalmos
Labs for hyperthyroidism  Decreased TSH Increased T3 and T4 Soft gland might pulsate Bruit heard over thyroid
Nursing Interventions for hyperthyroidism  V/S, I&O, Weight Cool baths Administer antithyroid meds: propylthiouracil, Iodine Administer beta blockers prn Rest & Nutrition Prepare for thyroidectomy Trach set and support the head post surgery
Nursing interventions for hyperthyroidism cont.  Monitor voice q 30 min Be prepared to administer Ca Gluconate Observe for hemorrhage,
Nursing interventions for hyperthyroidism cont.  Give pain meds Begin levothyroxine and monitor TSH External cooling Corticosteroids to decrease swelling V/S and cardiac monitoring Monitor for Tetany Monitor for Thyroid Storm
Pharmacology of hyperthyroidism  Potassium iodide SSKI Lugol’s solution Propylthiouracil Radioactive iodine 123 I or 131 I Beta adrenergic blockers Hydorcortisone
Complications of hyperthyroidism thyroid storm, heart failure, anxiety, mania
Thyroidectomy  Prior to surgery, patient must be euthyroid to prevent Thyroid Storm- hypermetabolic state Pain management Prevent hemorrhage
Thyroidectomy  Prevent hypocalcemia Instruct on life long hormone replacement therapy Surgery is done on patients with cancer or those that do not respond to RX.
S/S thyroidectomy  Hyperthyroidism Thyroid Cancer
Nursing interventions for thyroidectomy  Decrease stress on suture line Check behind the neck for bleeding Support the neck Calcium gluconate on hand Trach set
medications for thyroidectomy  Preop rx: Tapazole, SSKI, PTU Iodine prep Propranolol
medication for thyroidectomy  Post op rx: Synthyroid
Complications of thyroidectomy  Resp obstruction Hemorrhage Hypocalcemia Tetany Injury to laryngeal nerve Thyroid storm
Cushing’s Syndrome  R/t pituitary tumor or adrenal cortex Known as: hypercortisolism Increase circulating adrenal hormones Treatment is adrenalectomy- removal of tumor  Or decrease the steroid use
S/S of Cushing’s  Weakness, delayed wound healing Ruddy complexion Depressed, freq infections Buffalo hump Moon face, bruising Hyperglycemia
S/S of Cushing’s  Masculine traits Menstrual prob and impotence Risk for infection
Nursing interventions for Cushing's  Diet: high protein, Vit. D and Ca, low Calorie, fat, and Na. Rich in Vit.K, low carb. Teach not to d/c steroids abruptly Medic alert bracelet Teach about RX: adrenal enzyme inhibitor (aminoglutethimide) Go to the physician regularly 
Complications of Cushings hypertension, osteo, DM, Addison’s crisis, shock,death
Addison’s Disease  Cause: adrenal insufficiency Immune system makes antibodies that attack self. May follow TB, HIV, or abrupt withdrawal of steroids Treatment is to replace the hormone not being produced: Aldosterone = mineralocorticoid
Addison’s Disease Cortisol= replaced with glucocorticoid such as hydorcortisone
s/s for Addison's  Fatigue, weight loss, no appetite Abd pain,polyuria, wt loss N/v, diarrhea, low b/p Skin change- darkening Fever, irritability Crave salt Hypoglycemia Hair loss
Nursing Interventions for addison's  High Na, Low K, increase fluids Take medications Avoid stress ID card Carry injectable cortisol for ER Carry glucose Increase meds during stress, URI
Nursing Interventions for addison's  Go to ER if n,v or diarrhea Teach About Addisonian crisis Risk for osteo, hypotension, hypoglycemia, shock, death
medications for addison's  Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids = prednisone, hydrocortisone Addisonian Crisis: NS, IV Glococorticoids, antipyretics, antiemetics
Pheochromocytoma Adrenal medulla hypersecretion- tumor Tumors release excess catecholamines mainly norepinephrine 5 Ps: PressurePalpitationsPallorPerspirationPain –h/a,chest,abdPresenting: s/s: hypertensive crisis24 hour urine test
s/s pheochromocytoma  Ortho hypotension Weight loss Constipation Tremors, pallor Retinopathy Hyperglycemia Hypercalcemia Treatment: surgery Alphadrenergic blocker: phenoxybenzamine (preop) Demser (preop) Metyrosine Ca channel blockers
Hypoparathyroidism  Occurs after neck surgery and hypocalcemia Tx: calcium supp. And Vit D in the form of Calcitrol 2L fluid/day Eye dr. q 1-2 yr – cataracts Maintain low nml cal without stones
hypoparathyroid teaching  Take Calcium in divided doses Carbonate form with food Citrate form without food Vit D and phosphate binders
hypoparathyroid teaching  Self monitor for Hypocalcemia: muscle spasm, tetany, decline mental status. Hypercalcemia (thirst, polyuria, decrease muscle tone, constipation) Diet – high in Ca and low in phos (processed cheese) food high in Ca Complication: renal stones
True Hypoparathyroidism  Paresthesia around lips and mouth, fingers, toes Tetany = + Chvostek’s and +Trousseau’s Fragile nails Seizures Cardiac disfunction Dental problems
Hyperparathyroidism  Elevated calcium levels r/t inappropriate release of PTH Cause : cancer Med induced: thiazides, lithium, aminophylline, steroids, vit D Leukemia Vit D intox C/o myalgia and weakness- fall
treatment for hyperparathyroidism  Fluids Activity NO Thiazide diuretics – They promote Ca retention Diuretics Estrogen for Females SURGERY
Thyroid Cancer  Papillary Follicular Anaplastic  Thyroid lymphoma medullary
SIADH  Hypersecretion of ADH Cause – small cell Ca of lung or medication Correct the Na level Water restriction Demeclocycline, Lithium, phenytoin Hypertonic Saline 3% and Lasix
SIADH S/S  Anorexia, n/v,weight gain, weakness, anger Lethargy, h/a, seizure, coma Low NA Decrease urine No edema
Diabetes Insipidus  Polyuria as much as 20L/d Spec. grav 1.005 or less Polydypsia Insomnia Hypovolemia, hypernatremia Mental dullness
Diabetes Insipidus  Diet:low na,low protein, thiazide diuretics Treatment: nasal DDAPV, tab. Or IV Fluid replacement, I&O, neuro.  If nasal congestion – rx not absorbed.
Pituitary Gland disorders Acromegaly - Excess growth hormone- thicken hands, face, and feet.
pituitary gland disorders Surgery transphenoidal approach to remove pituitary adenoma – produce ACTH= Cushing’sIncreased prolactin hormone produced- treat with medication:Parlodel, Dostinex, Pergonal. Surgery,radiation.
Created by: dreca2 on 2009-02-24



bad sites Copyright ©2001-2014  StudyStack LLC   All rights reserved.