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Medical Terminology

Word Elements

a- without, not
-a noun ending
ab- from, away from
abdomin/o abdomen
abort/o to miscarry
-ac pertaining to
acid/o acid
acous/o hearing
acr/o extremity
acromi/o acromion (projection of the scapula)
-acusia hearing
-acusis hearing
-ad toward
ad- toward
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
adip/o fat
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
aer/o air
af- toward
agglutin/o clumping, gluing
agora- marketplace
-al pertaining to
albin/o white
albumin/o albumin (protein)
-algesia pain
-algia pain
allo- other, differing from the normal
alveol/o alveolus; air sac
ambly/o dull, dim
amni/o amnion (amnioic sac)
an- without, not
an/o anus
ana- against; up; back
andr/o male
aneurysm/o aneurysm (widened blood vessel)
angi/o vessel (usually blood or lymph)
angin/o choking pain
aniso- unequal, dissimilar
ankyl/o stiffness; bent, crooked
ante- before, in front of
anter/o anterior, front
anthrac/o coal, coal dust
anti- against
aort/o aorta
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
aque/o water
-ar pertaining to
-arche beginning
arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole
arthr/o joint
-ary pertaining to
asbest/o asbestos
-asthenia weakness, debility
astr/o star
-ate having the form of, possessing
atel/o incomplete; imperfect
ather/o fatty plaque
-ation process (of)
atri/o atrium
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
auto- self, own
ax/o axis, axon
azot/o nitrogenous componds
bacteri/o bacteria (singular, bacterium)
balan/o glans penis
bas/o base (alkaline, opposite of acid)
bi- two
bil/i bile, gall
bi/o life
-blast embryonic cell
blast/o embryonic cell
blephar/o eyelid
brachi/o arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
bronch/o bronchus (plural, bronchi)
bronchi/o bronchus (plural, bronchi)
bronchiol/o bronchiole
bucc/o cheek
calc/o calcium
calcane/o calcaneum (heel bone)
-capnia carbon dioxide (C02)
carcin/o cancer
cardi/o heart
-cardia heart condition
carp/o carpus (wrist bones)
cata- down
caud/o tail
cauter/o heat, burn
cec/o cecum
-cele hernia, swelling
-centesis surgical puncture
cephal/o head
-ceps head
-ception conceiviing
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
cervic/o neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
chalic/o limestone
cheil/o lip
chem/o chemical; drug
chlor/o green
chol/e bile, gall
cholangi/o bile vessel
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o bile duct
chondr/o cartilage
chori/o chorion
choroid/o choroid
chrom/o colour
chromat/o colour
-cide killing
circum- around
cirrh/o yellow
-cision a cutting
-clasia to break; surgical fracture
-clasis to break; surgical fracture
-clast to break; surgical fracture
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
clon/o clonus (turmoil)
-clysis irrigation, washing
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
cochle/o cochlea
col/o colon
colon/o colon
colp/o vagina
condyl/o condyle
coni/o dust
conjuctiv/o conjunctiva
-continence to hold back
contra- against, opposite
cor/o pupil
core/o pupil
corne/o cornea
coron/o heart
corp/o body
corpor/o body
cortic/o cortex
cost/o ribs
crani/o cranium (skull)
crin/o secrete
-crine secrete
cruci/o cross
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
culd/o cul-de-sac
-cusia hearing
-cusis hearing
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cycl/o ciliary body of the eye; circular; cycle
-cyesis pregnancy
cyst/o bladder
cyt/o cell
-cyte cell
dacry/o tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
dacryocyst/o lacrimal sac
dactyl/o fingers; toes
de- cessation
dendr/o tree
dent/o teeth
derm/o skin
-derma skin
dermat/o skin
-desis binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
di- double
dia- through, across
dipl- double
dipl/o double
dips/o thirst
-dipsia thirst
dist/o far, farthest
dors/o back (of body)
duct/o to lead; carry
-duction act of leading, bringing, conducting
duoden/o duodenum (first part of the small intestine)
dur/o dura mater; hard
-dynia pain
dys- bad; painful; difficult
-eal pertaining to
ec- out, out from
echo- repeated sound
-ectasis dilation, expansion
ecto- outside, outward
-ectomy excision, removal
-edema swelling
ef- away from
electr/o electricity
-ema state of; condition
embol/o embolus (plug)
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
emphys/o to inflate
en- in, within
encephal/o brain
end- in, within
endo- in, within
enter/o intestine (usually small intestine)
eosin/o dawn (rose-coloured)
epi- above, upon
epididym/o epididymis
epiglott/o epiglottis
episi/o vulva
erythem/o red
erythemat/o red
erythr/o red
eschar/o scab
-esis condition
eso- inward
esophag/o esophagus
esthes/o feeling
-esthesia feeling
eti/o cause
eu- good, normal
ex- out, out from
exo- outside, outward
extra- outside
faci/o face
fasci/o band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
-ferent to carry
fibr/o fiber, fibrous tissue
fibul/o fibula (smaller bone of the lower leg)
fluor/o luminous, fluorescence
galact/o milk
gangli/o ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)
gastr/o stomach
-gen forming, producing, origin
gen/o forming, producing, origin
-genesis forming, producing, origin
genit/o genitalia
gest/o pregnancy
gingiv/o gum(s)
glauc/o gray
gli/o glue; neuroglial tissue
-glia glue; neuroglial tissue
-globin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
glott/o glottis
gluc/o sugar, sweetness
glucos/o sugar, sweetness
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
glycos/o sugar, sweetness
gnos/o knowing
-gnosis knowing
gonad/o gonads, sex glands
goni/o angle
gon/o seed (ovum or spermatozoon)
-grade to go
-graft transplantation
-gram record, writing
granul/o granule
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-gravida pregnant woman
gyn/o woman, female
gynec/o woman, female
hallucin/o hallucination
hedon/o pleasure
hem/o blood
hemangi/o blood vessel
hemat/o blood
hemi- one half
hepat/o liver
hetero- different
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
home/o same, alike
homeo- same, alike
homo- same
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o water
hyp- under, below, deficient
hyper- excessive, above normal
hyp/o under, below, deficient
hypn/o sleep
hypo- under, below, deficient
hyster/o uterus (womb)
-ia condition
-iac pertaining to
-iasis abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
iatr/o physician; medicine; treatment
-iatry medicine; treatment
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
-ice noun ending
ichthy/o dry, scaly
-ician specialst
-icle small, minute
-icterus jaundice
idi/o unknown, peculiar
-ile pertaining to
ile/o ileum (third part of the small intestine)
ili/o ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip bone)
im- not
immun/o immune, immunity, safe
in- in, not
-ine pertaining to
infer/o lower, below
infra- below, under
inguin/o groin
insulin/o insulin
inter- between
intra- in, within
-ion the act of
-ior pertaining to
irid/o iris
-is noun ending
isch/o to hold back; block
ischi/o ischium (lower portion of the hip bone)
-ism condition
iso- same, equal
-ist specialist
-isy state of; condition
-itic pertaining to
-itis inflammation
-ive pertaining to
-ization process (of)
jaund/o yellow
jejun/o jejunum (second part of the small intestine)
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
kary/o nucleus
kerat/o horny tissue; hard; cornea
kern/o kernel (nucleus)
ket/o ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
keton/o ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
kinesi/o movement
-kinesia movement
kinet/o movement
klept/o to steal
kyph/o humpback
labi/o lip
labyrinth/o labyrinth (inner ear)
lacrim/o tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
lact/o milk
-lalia speech, babble
lamin/o lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
lapar/o abdomen
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side, to one side
lei/o smooth
leiomy/o smooth muscle (visceral)
-lepsy seizure
lept/o thin, slender
leuk/o white
lex/o word, phrase
lingu/o tongue
lip/o fat
lipid/o fat
-listhesis slipping
-lith stone, calculus
lith/o stone, calculus
lob/o lobe
log/o study of
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy study of
lord/o curve, swayback
-lucent to shine; clear
lumb/o loins (lower back)
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland (node)
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
-lysis separation; destruction; loosening
macro- large
mal- bad
-malacia softening
mamm/o breast
-mania state of mental disorder, frenzy
mast/o breast
mastoid/o mastoid process
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
meat/o opening, meatus
medi- middle
medi/o middle
mediastin/o mediastinum
medull/o medulla
mega- enlargement
megal/o enlargement
-megaly enlargement
melan/o black
men/o menses, menstruation
mening/o meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
meningi/o meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
ment/o mind
meso- middle
meta- change, beyond
metacarp/o metacarpus (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsus (foot bones)
-meter instrument for measuring
metr/o uterus (womb); measure
metri/o uterus (womb)
-metry act of measuring
mi/o smaller, less
micr/o small
micro- small
mono- one
morph/o form, shape, structure
muc/o mucus
multi- many, much
muscul/o muscle
mut/a genetic change
my/o muscle
myc/o fungus (plural, fungi)
mydr/o widen, enlarge
myel/o bone marrow; spinal cord
myos/o muscle
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
myx/o mucus
narc/o stupor; numbness; sleep
nas/o nose
nat/o birth
natr/o sodium ( an electrolyte)
necr/o death, necrosis
neo- new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neutral; neither
nid/o nest
noct/o night
nucle/o nucleus
nulli- none
nyctal/o night
obstetr/o midwife
ocul/o eye
odont/o teeth
-oid resembling
-ole small, minute
olig/o scanty
-oma tumour
omphal/o navel (umbilicus)
onc/o tumour
onych/o nail
oophor/o ovary
-opaque obscure
ophthalm/o eye
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-opsy view of
opt/o eye, vision
optic/o eye, vision
or/o mouth
orch/o testis (plural testes)
orchi/o testis (plural testes)
orchid/o testis (plural testes)
-orexia appetite
orth/o straight
-ory pertaining to
-ose pertaining to; sugar
-osis abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-osmia smell
oste/o bone
ot/o ear
-ous pertaining to
ovari/o ovary
ox/i oxygen
ox/o oxygen
-oxia oxygen
oxy- quick, sharp
pachy- thick
palat/o palate (roof of the mouth)
pan- all
pancreat/o pancreas
-para to bear (offspring)
para- near, beside; beyond
parathyriod/o parathyroid glands
-paresis partial paralysis
patell/o patella (kneecap)
path/o disease
-pathy disease
pector/o chest
ped/i foot; child
ped/o foot; child
pedicul/o lice
pelv/i pelvis
pelv/o pelvis
pen/o penis
-penia decrease, deficiency
-pepsia digestion
per- through
peri- around
perine/o perineum (area between the scrotum [or vulva in female] and anus)
peritone/o peritoneum
-pexy fixation (of an organ)
phac/o lens
phag/o swallowing, eating
-phage swallowing, eating
-phagia swallowing, eating
phalang/o phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)
pharmaceutic/o drug, medicine
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
-phasia speech
phe/o dusky, dark
-phil attraction for
phil/o attraction for
-philia attraction for
phim/o muzzle
phleb/o vein
-phobia fear
-phonia voice
-phoresis carrying, transmission
-phoria feeling (mental state)
phot/o light
phren/o diaphragm; mind
-phylaxis protection
-physis growth
pil/o hair
pituitar/o pituitary gland
-plakia plaque
plas/o formation, growth
-plasia formation, growth
-plasm formation, growth
-plasty surgical repair
-plegia paralysis
pleur/o pleura
-plexy stroke
-pnea breathing
pneum/o air; lung
pneumon/o air; lung
pod/o foot
-poiesis formation, production
poikil/o varied, irregular
poli/o gray; gray matter (of the brain or spinal cord)
poly- many, much
polyp/o small growth
-porosis porous
post- after, behind
poster/o back (of body), behind, posterior
-potence power
-prandial meal
pre- before, in front of
presby/o old age
primi- first
pro- before, in front of
proct/o anus, rectum
prostat/o prostate gland
proxim/o near, nearest
pseudo- false
psych/o mind
-ptosis prolapse, downward displacement
ptyal/o saliva
-ptysis spitting
pub/o pelvis bone (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
pulmon/o lung
pupill/o pupil
py/o pus
puel/o renal pelvis
pylor/o pylorus
pyr/o fire
quadri- four
rachi/o spine
radi/o radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on the thumb side)
radicul/o nerve root
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
reticul/o net, mesh
retin/o retina
retro- backward, behind
rhabd/o rod-shaped (striated)
rhabdomy/o rod-shaped (striated) muscle
rhin/o nose
rhytid/o wrinkle
roentgen/o x-rays
-rrhage bursting forth (of)
-rrhagia bursting forth (of)
-rrhaphy suture
-rrhea discharge, flow
-rrhexis rupture
-rrhythm/o ???? rhythm
rube/o red
sacr/o sacrum
-sarcoma malignant tumour of connective tissue
scapul/o scapula (shoulder blade)
-schisis a splitting
schiz/o split
scler/o hardening; sclera (white of the eye)
scoli/o crooked, bent
-scope instrument for examining
-scopy visual examination
scot/o darkness
seb/o sebum, sebaceous
semi- one half
semin/o semen; seed
semin/i semen; seed
sept/o septum
sequestr/o separation
ser/o serum
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
sider/o iron
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
silic/o flint
sin/o sinus, cavity
sinus/o sinus, cavity
-sis state of; condition
-social society
somat/o body
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
-spadias slit, fissure
salping/o tube (usually the fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tube)
-salpinx tube (usually the fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tube)
sarc/o flesh (connective tissue)
-spasm involuntary contraction, twitching
sperm/i spermatozoa, sperm cells
sperm/o spermatozoa, sperm cells
spermat/o spermatozoa, sperm cells
sphygm/o pulse
-sphyxia pulse
spin/o spine
spir/o breathe
splen/o spleen
spondyl/o vertebrae (backbone)
squam/o scale
staped/o stapes
-stasis standing still
steat/o fat
sten/o narrowing, stricture
-stenosis narrowing, stricture
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
steth/o chest
sthen/o strength
stigmat/o point, mark
stomat/o mouth
-stomy forming an opening (mouth)
sub- under, below
sudor/o sweat
super- upper, above
super/o upper, above
supra- above; excessive; superior
sym- union, together, joined
syn- union, together, joined
synapt/o synapsis, point of contact
synov/o synovial membrane, synovial fluid
tachy- rapid
tax/o order, coordination
-taxia order, coordination
ten/o tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
-tension to stretch
test/o testis (plural, testes)
thalam/o thalamus
thec/o sheath (usually referring to the meninges)
thel/o nipple
therapeut/o treatment
-therapy treatment
therm/o heat
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest
thalass/o sea
thromb/o blood clot
thym/o thymus gland
-thymia mind; emotion
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
tibi/o tibia (larger bone of the lower leg)
-tic pertaining to
till/o to pull
-tocia childbirth, labor
tom/o to cut
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy incision
ton/o tension
tonsill/o tonsils
tox/o poison
-toxic pertaining to poison
toxic/o poison
trabecul/o trabecula (supporting bundles of fibers)
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
trans- across, through
tri- three
trich/o hair
trigon/o trigone (triangular region at the base of the bladder)
-tripsy crushing
-trophy development, nourishiment
-tropia turning
-tropin stimulate
tubercul/o a little swelling
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
-ula small, minute
-ule small, minute
uln/o ulna (lower arm bone on the opposite side of the thumb)
ultra- excess, beyond
-um structure, thing
umbilic/o umbilicus, navel
ungu/o nail
uni- one
ur/o urine, urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urine
urin/o urine, urinary tract
-us condition; structure
uter/o uterus (womb)
uvul/o uvula
vagin/o vagina
valv/o valve
valvul/o valve
varic/o dilated vein
vas/o vessel; vas deferens; duct
vascul/o vessel (usually blood or lymph)
ven/o vein
ventr/o belly, belly side
ventricul/o ventricle (of the heart or brain)
-version turning
vertebr/o vertebrae (backbone)
vesic/o bladder
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vest/o clothes
viscer/o internal organs
vitr/o vitreous body (of the eye)
vitre/o glassy
vol/o volume
voyeur/o to see
vulv/o vulva
xanth/o yellow
xen/o foreign, strange
xiph/o sword
-y condition; process
Created by: spencertasha