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Chapter 1 Terms

Chapter 1 Security Terms

Acceptance Acknowledging a risk but taking no action to address it
Accounting The ability that provides tracking of events
Advanced Persistent Threat Multi-year intrusion campaign that targets highly sensitive economic, proprietary, or national security information
Asset An item that has a value
Authentication The steps that ensure that the individual is who he or she claims to be
Authorization The act of providing permission or approval to technology resources
Availability Security actions that ensure that data is accessible to authorized users
Broker Attacker who sells knowledge of a vulnerability to other attackers or governments
BYOD The practice of allowing users to use their own personal devices to connect to an organizational network
California’s Database Security Breach Notification Act The first state electronic privacy law, which covers any state agency, person, or company that does business in California
Confidentiality Security actions that ensure that only authorized parties can view the information
Cyber kill chain A systematic outline of the steps of a cyber attack, introduced at Lockheed Martin in 2011
Cybercrime Targeted attacks against financial networks, unauthorized access to information, and the theft of personal information
Cybercriminals A network of attackers, identity thieves, spammers, and financial fraudsters
Cyberterrorism A premeditated, politically motivated attack against info, computer systems, computer programs, and data, which often results in violence
Cyberterrorist Attacker whose motivation may be defined as ideological, or attacking for the sake of principles or beliefs
Deterrence Understanding the attacker and then informing him of the consequences of the action
Exploit Kit Automated attack package that can be used without an advanced knowledge of computers
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act A US law that requires banks and financial institutions to alert customers of their policies and practices in disclosing customer information.
Hactivist Attacker who attacks for ideological reasons that are generally not as well-defined as a cyber terrorist's motivation
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act A US law designed to guard protected health information and implement policies and procedures to safeguard it
Identity Theft Stealing another person's personal info, such as a social security number, and then using that info to impersonate the victim, generally for financial gain
Information Security The tasks of protecting the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of info on devices that store, manipulate, and transmit the info through products, people, and procedures
Insiders Employees, contractors, and business partners who can be responsible for an attack
Integrity Security actions that ensure that the info is correct and no unauthorized person or malicious software has altered the data
Mitigation Addressing a risk by making it less serious
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard A set of security standards that all US companies processing, storing, or transmitting credit card info must follow
Risk A situation that involves exposure to danger
Risk Avoidance Identifying the risk but making the decision to not engage in the activity
Sarbanes-Oxley Act A US law designed to fight corporate corruption
Script Kiddie Individual who lacks advanced knowledge of computers and networks and so uses downloaded automated attack software to attack info systems
State-Sponsored Attacker Attacker commissioned by governments to attack enemies' info systems
Threat A type of action that has the potential to cause harm
Threat Agent A person or element that has the power to carry out a threat
Threat Likelihood The probability that a threat will actually occur
Threat Vector the means by which an attack could occur
Transference Transferring the risk to a third party
Vulnerability A flaw or weakness that allows a threat agent to bypass security
Created by: JacobAntholz