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PULJU - OGT _ HIST A

***Pulju OGT study cards - HIS A - Enlightenment

QuestionAnswer
ENLIGHTENMENT mvmt of thought in 18th Century that used logic AND the scientific methods of observation to determine natural laws that govern social institutions.
This realm of life was changed the most as a result of the Enlightenment GOVERNMENT is the biggest place we see this.
ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT? enlightenment thinkers used methods of newton and others to apply the concept of natural laws to social areas of life.
SCIENCE INFLUENCE ON ENL. PHILOSOPHERS acceptance of NATURAL SCIENTIFIC LAWS lead enl. thinkers to conclude that social institutions must also be governed by NATURAL LAW.
GALILEO & NEWTON ENL. INFLUENCE BOTH USED OBSERVATION TO EXPOSE THE LAWS FOUND IN NATURE (earth ALWAYS orbits around the sun, what goes up ALWAYS comes down and follows a natural law)LEADING PHILOSOPHERS TO LOOK FOR LAWS THAT COULD BE APPLIED TO SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS.
3 CAUSES OF ENLIGHTENMENT 1. Influenced by new developments that found reoccurring truths or LAWS in science and math 2. Application of scientific method/observation - to find truths or NATURAL LAWS that should govern society 3. Philosophers reject ideas of divine right
6 Enlightenment philosophers 1.Issac Newton (gravitiational laws) 2.Hobbes (social contract) 3. J. Locke (natural rights) 4. Voltaire (freedom of thought) 5. Montesquieu (separation of powers) 6. J.Rousseau (good of community)
ISSAC NEWTON used observation (the apple that fell) and the scientific method to explain a how somethings in nature, are always true (what goes up – must come down). This study of the natural world by use of OBSERVATION AND EXPERIMENTATION - were applied to human be
THOMAS HOBBES Developed a formula for SOCIAL CONTRACT. Hobbes theory laid the formula for others (esp. Rousseau) to use as a framework and develop their own different ideas about what a Social Contract may be.
JOHN LOCKE argued that ppl have NATURAL RIGHTS. OBSERVED that people exist before the government and therefore people create and give the government its power. Thus, government must PROTECT NATURAL RIGHTS or the pp; can OVERTHROW THE GOVT
JOHN LOCKE’S INFLUENCE IN U.S. this thinker said that people have the natural rights of LIFE LIBERTY and PROPERTY. and Jefferson even took this man's words for use in the declaration of independence which says c
MONTESQUIEU U.S. INFLUENCE developed idea that government should be divided to prevent govt from tyranny (mean, absolute rulers). U.S. constitution created the 3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMEMNT
JEAN JAQUES ROUSSEAU used hobbes social contract method to develop his own. While he agreed with concept of natural rights he thought that we must put the GOOD OF THE COMMUNITY above the rights of the individual. Seen in the U.S. system – your rights can be limited for the
ADAM SMITH $$$ ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHER. His book, The Wealth of Nations he supported idea LAISSEZ-FAIRE economics which allows for a FREE MARKET ECONOMY that is not controlled by the government but regulated by SUPPLY and DEMAND
LAISSEZ FAIRE ECONOMICS French word translated means “let it alone.” BELIEF THAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD HAVE LITTLE REGULATION ON BUSINESS and that the regulation of business is controlled with an invisible hand.
INVISIBLE HAND the way that an economy regulates itself is through COMPETITION between sellers and the SUPPLY and DEMAND
LAISSEZ-FAIRE IN THE U.S. a French term that is generally U.S. economic policy. The U.S. has a free market based on Adam Smith’s work (u.s. doesn’t subscribe wholly to this belief as there is some government regulation of business).
VOLTAIRE this thinker argued that all people have the right to FREEDOM SPEECH without fear of government punishments. He also believed that the system of justice must give RIGHTS TO THOSE ACCUSED OF CRIMES.
VOLTAIRE INFLUENCE IN U.S. this person’s ideas of free speech and the criminal process including rights given the accused are seen in the U.S. BILL OF RIGHTS #1 FREE SPEECH etc., and # 5-8 which cover the RIGHTS OF THOSE ACCUSED while going through the legal process
SOCIAL CONTRACT idea that upon birth, a person enters into a unwritten contract with their society and government. In such a contract each person must give up some of his/her natural rights. Different societies have differing views on the amount of rights individuals
U.S. SOCIAL CONTRACT this is something we all entered into upon birth. We accept a combination of the ideas of both Locke who emphasized INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS and Rousseau who emphasized GOOD OF THE WHOLE.
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS these are the the inherent or natural laws that each individual has regardless of man made laws– not based on any man made laws.
COMMON GOOD the safety and rights of the ________________ can at times, justly require the restrictions or limitations of individual rights.– tend to be more man made rights or laws to protect the whole.
REVOLUTIONS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT The belief that government’s exisited for the protection of the liberties given to man by their creator also led to the belief that governments that failed to serve their purpose could be replaced.
3 PLACES THAT ENGAGED IN REVOLUTION AS A DIRECT RESULT OF THE ENL. 1. The U.S. 2. France 3. Latin America (Haiti)
RESULTS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1. Major changes in who holds political power 2. Changes in the role and function of government (now MUST protect liberties) 3. Justice for the people seen in the overthrowing of 3 governments (America, France. Latin America)
5 U.S. ELEMENTS THAT ARE DIRECT IDEAS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1. Declaration of Independence 2. Revolutionary war (overthrew England) 3. The U.S. Constitution has balance of powers and checks on powers 4. Bill of rights 5. The 14th amendment
ENLIGHTENMENT THE IDEAS FROM THIS TIME IS THE FOUNDATION OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT.
CHANGES IN THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT In the past, power had always belonged to a small few (king/ religious leaders) however new thinking led the people to believe the power to rule must come from the people and if leader/s did not follow ppl rights then they must be abolished
Enlightened ideas about GOVERNMENT government’s roles is to PROTECT the natural rights of the people not just rule as they please!
DIVINE RIGHT
IDEA REJECTED BY ENLIGHTENMENT divine right of kings
ABSOLUTISM Characterized by a LEADER WHO IS UNRESTRAINED, and has power of DOMINANCE OVER ENTIRE SOCIETY,and therefore does NOT SUPPORT RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE
ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM Kings/Queens who adopted beliefs of enlightenment. began to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.
Created by: mshons on 2009-02-22



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