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Geography midterm

what is geography? and what does it mean? It means writing about the earth. Geography Studies natural or human phenomena through space scale and time.
what are absolute location? Absolute location is identification of a location by precise system or cordinates. Mathematical location.
what are absolute directions? uses cardinal direction of N-S-E-W
what are absolute distances? refers to the spatial separation between 2 points on the earths surface measured by a standard unit like miles.
What is toblers first law of Geography? in a spatial sense Everything is related to everything else but relationships are stronger when things are near one another
What are 4 interrelations between places? spatial distribution, accessibility ,connectivity and diffusion
What is the definition of regions? An area that is distinguished from other areas by some characteristics. It helps geographer generalize and simplify.
what is a formal region? Areas of essential uniformity reguarding a single physical or cultural feature or a limited combination of physical and cultural features. The attribute holds true for entire region.
what is a functional region? Areas are visualized as a spatial system.Every region is objectively defined.
what are the five fundamental themes of geography? location, description, human interaction, movement, regions.
diffrence between spacial data and non spacial data? spatial data about location, shape and relationship among geographical features and can be linked to a map. Non spatial is independent of all geographic consideration.
What is a map? 2 dimensional flat representation of the world
What is cartography? art and science of making maps
Know some properties of maps. scale, flat surface, selection of geographical phenomena.
What is map scale? ratio between the measurement of something on a map and the corresponding measurement on earth.
What are general-reference maps? class room map. focuses on displaying one or more natural and or cultural features of an area or the world as a whole.
Know topographic map. a general reference map that depicts the shape and elevation of the terrain. Usually portray the surface features with great accuracy.
What are contour line (isoline) and contour interval? shows elevation values. | shows differences between elevation values
What are latitude? angular distance north or south of the equator. 0-90 degrees.
longitude is ? also called the meridian, angular distance east or west of the prime meridian measured in degrees ranging from 0 degrees to 180 degrees.
prime meridian is? imaginary lines passing through the royal observatory at Greenwich england. 0 degree longitude.
International Date Line? the 180th meridian.
Know the properties of latitude and longitude? 0-90 degrees. equator to pole. | 0-180 degrees.
map projection? Designates the way the curved surface of a globe is represented on a flat map.
remote sensing? Detecting the nature of an object without direct contact with the ground. arial photography and satellite imaging.
gis? geographic information systems. , computer based set of procedure for assembling , storing, manipulating and displaying geographical referenced information.
gps? global positioning system. records the position of a number of the satellites simutaniously, then its latitude, longitude, altitude and the time to make precise measurement of a specific location.
Know the four spheres of the earth. atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere.
what is troposphere? lowest layer of the atmosphere.contains air clouds precipitation of the earth.
What is the difference between weather and climate? weather is the moments view of the lower atmosphere. climate is long term daily weather in an area.
What are the four elements of weather and climate? temperature, pressure, wind, moisture
What factors determine air temperature? the amount of water vapor in the air, cloud cover, nature of the surface of the earth, elevation,degree and direction of air movement.
What is lapse rate? rate of temperature change with altitude in the troposphere.
What is air pressure? total mass of the atmosphere pressing down on the surface of the earth
What is the reason of winds? result of pressure diffrences
What is convection? the circular motion of descending cool air and ascending warm air.
What is precipitation? any form of water particles-- rain, sleet, snow,or hail that fall from the atmosphere and reach the earths surface.
Know the three types of precipitation. conventional, orographic, frontal
Know climagraph. dual purpose graphical depiction of the monthly precipitation and temperature conditions for the selected place.
What is storm? any disturbed state of the atmosphere specially effecting the earths surface and strongly implying severe weather.
What is storm surge? offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically a tropical cyclone or hurricane caused by high winds pushing on the oceans surface
What is tropical cyclone begins in a low pressure zone over warm waters, usually in the northern hemisphere
Know hurricane? severe tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 119 kilometers per hour
typhoon? In a developing hurricane , the warm moist air at the surface rises which helps suck up air from the surface. this warms the center of the storm. name given in the western pacific.
hurricane track? is the path a hurricane follows that consists of locations of individual hurricane or tropical storms.
hurricane eye? calm clear central core
hurricane classification? represents hurricane intensity, and gives an estimate of the potential property
How does a hurricane die out? when hurricanes move over cooler northern waters as while racing toward the US northeast they lose strength as the fuel (warm water) suppy cools and dies out due to a lack of moisture and warm water.
Which two potential flood waters are bordering New Orleans?
What are the two types of levees in New Orleans?
Know hydrological cycle. the system by which it continuously circulates through the biosphere. this cycle includes three components, evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation.
Know Water Stress Indicator and how to interpret this indicator.
What are the two sources of water pollution? point and non point
What are the four major contributors to water pollution? agriculture, industry, mining, and municipalities
Know the major contributors of air pollution. burning fossil fuels(coal gas and oil), incineration of solid wastes, forests and agricultural fires and the evaporation of solvents
Know the three types of air pollution. Acid rain: created by burning fossil fuel, has terrestrial aquatic and material effects.
Know greenhouse effect and global warming? natural effect- produced by carbon dioxide water vapor, ozone methane that causes thicker layer which enhances greenhouse effect.
Know the main greenhouse gases that occur in nature? carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone methane
What are the three types of human impact on landforms? excavation, dumping, surface depressions
What is surface depression? extraction from the ground can lead to sinking portions of land surfaces. when fluids are removed sediments compacts.
What are endangered, vulnerable, and threatened species? represent low numbers and are in jeopardy| decreasing populations and are likely to become endangered| include endangered and vounerable species.
What are the two types of habitat disruption? main cause of extintion, agricultural, extractive, and modifying
What is biological magnification (biomagnification)?
Know the difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification.
Know Three Gorges Dam (location, related river, objectives/benefits, social and environment impacts)
Know the examples that show environmental impact of mining in the rainforest.
relative location? Position of a place in relation to another place.
relative directions? uses relation between 2 or more things such as left right up down forward and backward.
Relative distances? transforms linear measurements into more meaningful measurements such as time.
thematic maps? statistical map. shows specific distribution or category of data. They focus on
Created by: karinaxn