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RS Microbiology

Respiratory System Microbiology - Virology of the Common Cold

URT Infections include the following: 1) Common Cold 2) Pharyngitis 3) Quinsy 4) Epiglottitis 5) Otitis media 6) Sinusitis
URT Infections are mostly caused by: Viral infections 80-90%
What are the symptoms of the common cold? Runny nose (rhinitis) Headache Sneezing Mild fever Coughing General fatigue
Which two types of viruses most commonly cause the common cold? Rhinovirus Coronavirus
What is the main causative agent of pharyngitis/tonsillitis? Viruses (80%)
Quinsy is: Tonsillar abcess
What is the main cause of Quinsy? Bacteria
What is the main cause of Epiglottitis? Bacteria - Haemophilus Influenza
Why don't we examine a patient we suspect to have Epiglottitis with a tongue depressor? This might leads to edema
Otitis media and Sinusitis are: Inflammation of the middle ear and the paranasal sinuses respectively
They are most commonly caused by: Bacteria
What time of the year does the common cold most likely affect patients? Winter, then in the fall and spring
How is the common cold managed? Provide supportive therapy DO NOT GIVE ANTIBIOTICS
Symptomtic relief may be accompanied by mucopurulent rhinitis. Is this an indication for antimicrobial treatment? No, not unless it persists without improvement for over two weeks (possible sinusitis)
The common could accounts for how much of the URT infections? 1/3 or 1/2
Rhinoviruses are responsible for: 30 to 50% of common cold
Coronaviruses are responsible for: 10 to 30%
The other 20-60% is caused by which viruses? Adenovirus Respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV ) Enterovirus Influenza and Parainfluenza virus
Why doesn't a common cold require medical intervention? The common cold will resolve itself within 5-7 days
Why is there no vaccine for the common cold? There are more than 100 serologic types of rhinovirus
What are the receptors for the rhinovirus? I-CAM 1
Replication of the rhinovirus occurs in the nasal cavity because: this virus prefers to replicate at 33-34 C as in the nasal cavity
What is the incubation period of the rhinovirus? 2-4 days
Mode of transmission: Respiratory droplets Hand to hand contact
How many times per year can an individual suffer? 2 to 5 times
Increased levels of bradykinin cause: 1) Increased secretions 2) Vasodilation 3) Cough and sore throat 4) Headache 5) Malaise 6) Chills (rigors)
What are the possible complications of the common cold? 1) Acute bacterial sinusitis 2) Acute bacterial 3) Otitis media 4) Asthma attacks 5) Worsening of chronic bronchitis
How does viral infection lead to bacterial superinfection? 1) Drop in patient immunity 2) Inflammation in the phayrnx 3) Narrowing of the connection between the middle ear and the oral cavity (Eustachian)
How can we decrease the cough and the amount of secretions and to improve the lifestyle of the patient? 1) Antihistamine 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) 3) Decongestants 4) Cough suppressants (narcotics)
Coronavirus is: Named because of crown-like projections on its surface. We have at least 10 species recognized 1 Human coronavirus It’s a + ssRNA , enveloped , has a helical symmetry
Three antigenic molecules are found in the virions: Nucleocapsid Surface projection Transmembrane proteins *The main antigenic determinants reside on the surface projections
Human coronavirus strains fall into serological groups, which are named: OC43 and 229E
This virus has a high frequency of what mutations? Deletion mutations and recombination during replication which is unusual for an RNA virus with unsegmented genome
Coronaviruses may be associated with: Gastroenteritis which occurs year-round
Other viruses to cause common colds are 1) Coxsackie virus which is an enterovirus that causes herpangina ( severe sorethroat and vesiculoulcerative lesions in the palate or around thetonsils ) 2) Adenovirus, which also responsible for pharyngitis and even for pneumonia 3-influenza
Pharyngitis is: An inflammatory process of the pharynx caused by viral agents mainly and bacteria
Which bacteria? Strep group A pyogenes
Symptoms: 1) sore throat 2) pain during swallowing and dysphagia 3) Fever 4) enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes 5) common cold symptoms 6) Inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils
Exudative or Diffuse erythema is associated with : Group A , C, G Streptococcus , EBV, Neisseriae gonococcus C.diphtheriae, A.haemolyticum and Mycoplasma pneumonia
Ulcerating vesicles are a sign of: Viral infection
When you see an exudate, this is a sign of: Bacterial infection Small change of it being Adeno, EBV, and sometimes fungi (in the immunocompromised)
Quinsy is characterized by: Tonsillar abscess , pain , fever and difficulty in swallowing Usually the treatment is done by drainage and antibiotics
The causative agents of epiglottitis are: h.influenza( most common , now rare) , strep group A ,staph aureus and pneumococcus
We have two types of otitis media: Acute and chronic
The acute one is linked to Viral infection
Signs of Middle Ear Effusion: 1) Bulging of tympanic membrane 2) Limited mobility 3) Airfluid level 4) otorrhoea
Evaluation of Signs and Symptoms of Middle Ear Inflammination: Erythema of tymbanic membrane or Distinct otalgia The patients most of the time –especially children - present with severe pain that prevents them from sleeping and sometimes with otorrhoea You should start antibiotic treatment immediately
The main causative organisms are: 1) Strep Pneumoniae up to 50% 2) Haemphilus Influenzae 30% 3) Moraxella catarrhalis 3-30% 4)Rhinovirus/RSV/Coronaviruses/Adenoviruses/Enteroviruses –40-75% collectively .
Symptoms: Infant excessive crying, pulling ear Toddler: irritability , earache Both may have otorrhoea Signs: Fever ,bulging eardrum, fullness and erythema of tympanic membrane
Sinusitis is divided into: Acute ,sub acute, recurrent acute, chronicand superimposed *We are going to discuss the acute
What percentage of children's UTIs may be complicated by sinusitis? 5-13%
Causative agents: 1) strep pneumoniae 2) H.influenza 3) Moraxella catarrhali
Created by: Ulaisl