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IR Perspectives

International Relations Retake Quiz

What is Liberalism? Liberalism is the social, political, and economic philosophy based on a positive view of human nature. It is the dominant alternative to conservative and realism as an approach to understanding social reality and international relations.
What is Idealism? Idealism is an approach to international politics based upon liberal principles. It is better to label this alternative to realism as Liberal Internationalism or liberalism which refers to the political and philosophical tradition from which it emerged.
Liberal internationalism is another term, along with idealism, for the application of liberal assumptions and principles to international relations.
Liberal Institutionalism stresses the positive role of international organizations in promoting corporation and peace. This version of liberalism believes that international organizations can often help states reduce the uncertainties of anarchy by building trust.
Harmony of Interests Liberals think its possible to create a social, political, and economic order that benefits everybody—an order that maximizes individual freedom and material/economic prosperity. It is the cornerstone of the liberal belief in the free market.
Democratic Liberalism international liberal thought that claims democracies are more peaceful than are non democracies especially in their relations with one another. A more democratic world = a more peaceful world
Commercial Liberalism stresses the importance of interdependence in trade and investment as a force for peace.the greater level of interdependence, the more one nation’s well-being depends on another nation’s well-being. CREATES COMMON INTEREST
Marxism rich are most powerful. theory emphasizing the importance of class conflict for understanding social relations, including international politics. CAPITALISM and a theory of social change.
Nonnuetrality of the State The Marxist assuption that the state or government inevitably serves, protects, and advances the interests of those with economic power.
Feminism is a perspective on social phenomena focusing on issues of concern to women while theoretically emphasizing the importance of gender.its differentiating from the differences of gender. Gender is associated with masculinity or femininity.
Liberal Feminist Femenits who believe there is absolutely no differences between men and women and that women are equally equipped to occupy a position of power.
Standpoint Feminist Femenist who believe there is some basic variation between men and women, such as socialization and varying life experiences. Women are more emotional then men.
Postmodern Feminist Femenists who reject everything of liberal feminist and believe there should be a difference between men and women. Theses people are the ones that believe the place for a women is in the kitchen.
Femenism vs. Marxism often ignored where realist and liberal perspectives are assumed to exhuast the alternatives. also share a belief that realism and liberalism ignore the signif. variable for understanding social reality: marx social class, fem. gender
Constructivism perspective that stresses the importance of identities and shared understanding in shaping the behavior of social actors. actors (states) seek to behave in accordance with the norms relative to their identities
level of analysis international phenomena such as war or foreign policy are examined from several different levels
individual level of social analysis focuses on the general aspects of human nature or traits of individual decision makers (perceptions, beliefs, personalities)
State level of social analysis understand how characteristics influence state behavior; are democratic states more peaceful or capitalist states more expansionist?
International level of social analysis understand the impact of international anarchy or given distributions of power (does a balance or imbalance of power lead to peace?)
Evolutionary Lag or disequalibruim Konrad Lorenz's idea that human intellectual eveloution (which is reflected in out ability to build increasingly destructive weapons that allow us to kill from greater and greater distances) has outstripped our moral evolution:against killing other humans
Appeasement Gesture Popularized by Konrad Lorenz: submission posture that signifies defeat
Spacing The tendency of animals to disperse themselves over a given territory so as to prevent overpopulation and depletion of resources. cited by ethologists as one of the useful functions of aggression in animals
Hierarchy The unequal distribution of power and authority in an animal grouping. the social hierarchy is often developed via force. one of the useful functions of aggression in animals.
Ashley Montagu Thesis motivationally, war represents one of the least aggressive forms of human behavior. it cant be assumed that every act of violence is motivated by aggression. ex: someone robs a band out of greed not because they want to be violent
instrumental violence violence used to accomplish a particular objective
dehumanization poerception of other people as less than human
pseudospecification viewing other humans as if they were not members of one's own species - tendency is often cited by those who see war as a culturally and socially learned phenomenon
ethology the study of animal behavior
Created by: gehrins