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The Mauryan dynasty Magadha kingdom filled power vacuum left by withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon
When did Chandragupta Maurya began conquest ? in 320s B.C.E.
How was Maurya dynasty founded? by stretching from Bactria to Ganges
Arthashastra Kautala's advice manual,an outlined administrative methods
Ashoka Maurya Conquered the kingdom of Kalinga Ruled through tightly organized bureaucracy Established capital at Pataliputra Policies were written on rocks or pillars
How did the empire maryuan declined? after his death because of financial problems
Greek-speaking Bactrians ruled in northwest India for how many centuries? two centuries
What were the Kushans? were the nomads from Central Asia,they conquered and ruled, 1-300 C.E. High point was Emperor Kashika, 78-103 C.E. had a role in the silk road tradding network
who founded the Gupta dynasty? Chandra Gupta (375-415 C.E.) Smaller and more decentralized than Maurya Invasion of White Huns weakened the empire Large regional kingdoms dominated political life in India
What did towns privided? manufactured products and luxury goods Active marketplaces, especially along Ganges
With who would they trade? Persia, China, Indian Ocean basin, Indonesia, southeast Asia, Mediterranean basin
Gender relations patriarchal families, female subordination, child marriage
Development of caste system With trade and commerce new social groups of artisans, craftsmen, and merchants appeared and functioned as sub castes, or jati
What did Vaishyas and shudras saw ? unprecedented wealth
What in the Aryan society became increasingly irrelevant? Old beliefs and values
What did Vardhamana Mahavira (Jina) founded? Jain religion in 5th century B.C.E.
Jainist doctrine and ethics Inspired by the Upanishads: everything in universe has a soul Striving to purify one's selfish behavior to attain a state of bliss nonviolence toward all living things Too demanding, not a practical alternative to the cult of the brahman
Jainism individual souls equally participated in ultimate reality Jains did not recognize social hierarchies of caste and jati
Who became the Buddha? Siddhartha Gautama
What did Siddhartha Gautama do? he received enlightenment under the bo tree First sermon :at the Deer Park of Sarnath Organized followers into a community of monks
What was the Buddhist doctrine? the dharma
the dharma The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path are the way to end suffering Suffering is caused by desire
What was the religious goal for the Buddhism? Religious goal: personal salvation, or nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence
How did buddhism appealed to members? Appealed strongly to members of lower castes because it did not recognize social hierarchies of castes and jati
Buddhism Was less demanding than Jainism, which made it more popular Used vernacular tongues, not Sanskrit Holy sites venerated by pilgrims The monastic organizations,extremely efficient at spreading the Buddhist message and winning converts to the faith
Who became the important patron of Buddhism? Ashoka
What did early buddhism made? heavy demands on individuals
Development of Buddhism Buddha became a god Monasteries began to accept gifts from wealthy individuals These changes became known as Mahayana Buddhism Educational institutions (like Nalanda) promoted new faith
The emergence of popular Hinduism a secular poem revised by brahman scholars to honor the god Vishnu, the preserver of the world Ramayana, a secular story of Rama and Sita, was changed into a Hindu story
The Bhagavad Gita A short poetic work: dialogue between Vishnu and warrior which Illustrated expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation
Hindu ethics Achieve salvation through meeting caste responsibilities Lead honorable lives in the world
Who gradually replaced Buddhism in india? Hinduism
Created by: StephanieJ3102