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Rhetorical Devices

AP English Rhetorical Devices

Parallelism is similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases or clauses.ex: So Janie waited a bloom time, and a green time and an orange time. —Hurston
Antithesis is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure.ex:What if I am rich, and another is poor—strong, and he his weak—intelligent, and he is benighted—elevated, and he is depraved?—Garrison
Anastrophe is inversion of the natural or usual word order. This deviation can emphasize a point or it can just sound awkward.ex: Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.—Kennedy
Parenthesis is inversion of some verbal unit in a position that interrupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence.
Apposition is placing side by side two coordinate elements, the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the first. In grammar, this is the appositive or noun cluster.
Ellipsis is the deliberate omission of a word or of words which are readily implied by the context. While this cam make clear, economical sentences, if the understood words are grammatically incompatible, the resulting sentence may be awkward.
Asyndeton is the deliberate omission of conjunctions between a series of related clauses. The effect of this device is to produce a hurried rhythm in the sentence. This builds momentum and tension.
Polysndeton is the deliberate use of many conjunctions. The effect of polysyndeton is to slow down the rhythm of the sentence.
Alliteration is the initial or medial consonants in two or more adjacent words. Used sparingly, alliteration provides emphasis. Overused, it sounds silly.
Assonance is the repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in stressed syllables of adjacent words.
Anaphora is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses. This device produces a strong emotional effect, especially in speech. It also establishes a marked change in rhythm.
Epistrophe is the repetition of the same word or group at the ends of successive clause. Like anaphora, epistrophe produces a strong rhythm and emphasis.
Epanalepsis is the repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause. Like other schemes of repetition, epanalepsis often produces or expresses strong emotion.
Anadiplosis is the repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause.
Climax is the arrangement of words, phrases or clauses in an order of increasing importance.
Chiasmus is the repetition of word, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order.
Polyptoton is repetition of words derived from the same root.
Metaphor is an implied comparison between two things of unlike nature.
Simile is an explicit comparison between two things of unlike nature (usually using “like” or “as” or some other direct word of comparison like “resembles”)
Synecdoche is s a figure of speech in which a part stands for the whole.
Metonymy is the substitution of some attributive or suggestive word for what is actually meant.
Antanaclasis is the repetition of a word in two different sensesex:Your argument is sound, nothing but sound.—Franklin
Pun is the use of words of alike in sound but different in meaning. ex: Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man.—Shakespeare.
Syllepsis is the use of a word understood differently in relation to two or more other words, which it modifies or governs.
Anthimeria is the substitution of one part of speech for another.
Aphorism is a short witty statement.ex:A penny saved is a penny earned.—Franklin
Personification is giving human characteristics to inanimate objects for a heightened effect.
Hyperbole is the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect.
Litotes is the deliberate use of understatement
Rhetorical question is asking a question, not for the purpose of eliciting an answer but for the purpose of asserting or denying something obliquely.
Irony is the use of a word in such a way as to convey a meaning opposite to the literal meaning of the word.
Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose sound echoes the sense.ex:From the clamor and clangor of the bells!—Poe
Oxymoron is the joining of two terms, which are ordinarily contradictory
Paradox is an apparently contradictory statement that nevertheless contains a measure of truth.ex:Art is a form of lying in order to tell the truth.—Picasso
Synesthesia is when one sensory experience is described in terms of another sensory experience (to create an effective yet mixed combination of senses).
Created by: sajavoo on 2009-02-05

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