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chapter 4

citadel Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary
harappan Harappan society
venerated Harappans venerated gods and goddesses whom they associated with creation and procreation respect
pantheon Many scholars believe, however, that some Harappan deities survived the col- lapse of the larger society and found places later in the Hindu pantheon
aryans aryans society
rig veda One of the later hymns of the Rig Veda offers a brief account of the world’s creation and the origin of the four castes (varnas)
indra War god, Indra
raja Most chiefdoms had leader raja, king
caste system Those distinctions became the foundation of the caste system, which largely determined the places that individuals and groups oc- cupied in society
varnas Four main varnas, recognized after 1000 B.C.E.: brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants), shudras (landless peasants and serfs)
brahmins priests, Members are subdivided into numerous communities known as gotras
kshatriyas warrior, ruler
vaishyas Their role lay in productive labour, in agricultural and pastoral tasks, and in trading
shudras Shudra is the fourth varna
law book of manu Lawbook of Manu definition: guidelines formed based on Hindu beliefs significance: set of laws to bring order, first ones to be based on religion
brahman the Universal spirit of which we are all made
doctrine a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group
karma demonstrates thought and questions in after-life and creation
dravidian a settled, well-organized people who built cities in India
Created by: Rodrigo2019