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Chapter 7

The Empires of Persia

Achaemenids The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history.
Medes The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (North-western Iran) and who spoke the Median language.
Pasargadae Pasargadae, capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC) and also the location of his tomb, was a city in ancient Persia.
Cambyses Son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was King of Kings of Persia.
Darius He was the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Also called Darius the Great, he ruled the empire at its peak.
Persepolis Persepolis, literally meaning "city of Persians",[3] was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BCE).
Satrapies administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps
Persian Royal Road The Royal Road was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the Achaemenid Empire in the 5th century BC.c
Commonwealth Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
Battle of Marathon The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece
Alexander of Macedon Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
Seleucids The Seleucid Empire or Seleucia was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great.
Parthians Parthia is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran. It was the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire
Mithradates King of the Parthian Empire from 165 BC to 132 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. He made Parthia into a major political power by expanding the empire to the east, south, and west.
Ctesiphon Ctesiphon was the capital city of the Parthian and Sasanian Empires. It was one of the great cities of late ancient Mesopotamia.
Sassanids It was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam and was recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighboring arch rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism is one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. It was founded by the Prophet Zoroaster in ancient Iran approximately 3500 years ago.
Ahura Mazda The Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion predating Islam. Ahura Mazda is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism,
Magi It is a term, used since at least the 6th century BCE, to denote followers of Zoroastrianism.
Avestra The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Manichaeism A major religion that was founded by the Irania prophet Mani in the Sasanian Empire.
Created by: Melissa3102