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Pharmacology Review

define drug chemical substance that affect the mind and body, used in diagnosis and treatment and prevention of diease, illegal substance
differentiate between prescription repeats and prescription renewals repeats- a continuation of long-term medications renewals-extensions of prescriptions that have run out
describe sustained release cause a delay in the active absorption of the medication
what can drugs be classified by function, effects, body system
name and describe the different effects of drugs therapeutic action- the purpose for giving the drug/side effects, adverse effects- every drug has potential side effects, allergies- a serious reaction to a drug
name and describe the classifications of drugs by scope of action local- when the drug affects the site of application, only systemic- circulate in the blood stream, cumulative- accumulates faster then it can be metabolized
name and describe the classifications of drugs by use therapeutic- taken to relieve symptoms, diagnostic- used to preform diagnostic test, enema curative- taken to "replace" a hormone, prophylactic- given to prevent a condition or decrease the severity of a condition
what are the four names that can be given to a single drug chemical, generic, trade, botanical
what are the two methods of dispensing drugs prescription, over the counter
what is enteric-coated allows pills to bypass the stomach
what is a pharmacist a health professional who is trained in preparing and dispensing drugs
what is pharmacology the study and description of drugs, their composition, actions, and effects chemicals have on living things. a biological science
what is pharmacy a licensed business involved in dispensing drugs
when are drug errors more likely made when taken over phone transcription
synergism a combination of two drugs that causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug given alone
inhalation administration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouth
antidote agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug
stimulant agent that excites and promotes activity
antihypertensive agent that lowers blood pressure
hypnotic agent that produces sleep
iatrogeneric an effect that is produced an an individual sensitivity to a drug
side effect an effect that routinely results from the use of a drug
parenteral by injection or intravenous
antibiotic chemical substance that inhibits or kills foreign organisms
systemic circulating through the bloodstream to produce a general effect on the body
brand name commercial name for a drug; trade name
tolerance drug action in which larger and larger doses must be given to achieve the desired effect
antihistamine drug that blocks the action of natural histamines in the body and relives allergy symptoms
antidepressants drug that is used to relieve symptoms of depression
anticonvulsant drug that prevents convulsions
emetic drug that promotes vomitting
antidirrheal drug used to prevent dirrhea
antiarrhythmic drug which helps restore heart rhythm to a regular cycle
antacid drug which neutralizes acid in the stomach
anesthetic Drug which reduces or eliminates sensation
analgesic Drug which relieves pain
topical Drugs applied on the skin or mucous membranes
controlled drugs Drugs defined by federal law to which special rules apply because they are liable to be abused
oral Drugs given by mouth
sublingual Drugs given under the tongue
rectal Drugs inserted via the anus into the rectum
contraindications Factors in a patient’s condition that prevents the use of a drug treatment
narcotic Habit-forming drug that relieves pain
toxicity Harmful effects of a drug
anaphylaxis Hypersensitive reaction of the body to a drug or foreign organism
syringe Instrument for introducing fluids to or withdrawing fluids from the body
sedative Mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes, without necessarily producing sleep
transport Movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells
fixed oils Oils, extracted primarily from plants, that do not evaporate
volatile oils Oils, extracted primarily from plants, that evaporate
aerosols Particles of medication suspended in air
ophthalmic Relating to the eye
vitamin Substances found in foods which are essential for life
receptor Target substance with which a drug interacts in the body
cumulative action The concentration of a drug may increase with each dose, due to the half-life of previous doses
absorption The process by which a medication is taken into the body, broken down, and transformed into a form that the body can use
distribution The process by which metabolites are transported to various parts of the body
metabolism The process of breaking down a drug or other substance into metabolites used by the body
half-life The time required by the body to metabolize half the amount of the drug ingested
additive action The total effect that two drugs have in combination is equal to the sum of the effects of each
otic Via the ear
1/12 1 month
1/52 1 week
ac, a.c. before meals
ASAP as soon as possible
bid, b.i.d. twice a day
cap capsule
CPS Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties
gtt, gtt(s) drop, drops
i, ii one, two
mg milligram
mL, ml millilitre
npo, n.p.o. nothing by mouth
ODB Ontario Drug Benefit
OTC over-the-counter
ou both eyes
p.c.,pc after meals
p.o. by mouth
prn as needed
q.a.m. every day before noon/ “morning”
Q.D., q.d. every day
q.o.d. every other day
q.p.m. every day after noon (every night)
q_h every 1,2,3... hours
q.h. every hour
qid,q.i.d. four times a day
Rx prescription
s.c., SC, SQ, subc, subq, subcut, subcutaneous
SL, sl sublingual
stat , STAT immediately
ss one half
t.i.d., tid three times a day
tab tablet
Tx treatment
ung ointment
x 3 days times three days
Created by: lexieeesmith