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chapter 15

The four main functions of the nervous system include 1) sending impulses to the CNS. 2) sending impulses back to the PNS. 3) coordinating the activities of all parts of the nervous system (functions that rely on outside stimulation), and 4) detecting various changes in the body acting as a sensory organ.
During the________ stress response the sympathetic nervous system ( SNS) shuts down the nonessential systems of the body, which redirect energy to other areas such as the muscular system. fight- or -flight
Although injectable drugs do not need an auxiliary label when administered by a physician or nurse, ________ need auxiliary labels because these are carried by the patient for emergency use. EpiPens
The main neurotransmitters of the SNS are norepinephrine and epinephrine
In the transmission of a chemical message from one neuron to another, three basic states need to occur within each neuron: polarized, depolarized, repolarized.
The _________ is the division of the Autonomic nervous system which functions during restful situations Parasympathetic nervous system
The CNS is composed of the _____ and the ____, whereas the PNS is located outside the CNS and consists of the _____ and ______ branches. brain, spinal cord, afferent (sensory), efferent (motor)
The efferent division is further divided into the ____ and ______systems somatic, autonomic
The ANS consists of two main branches: the SNS and the PSNS
All Anticonvulstant medications require a physician to guide the discontinuation of the medication to avoid seizure activity: therefore these medications should not be abruptly stopped.
Only_______ medications require shaking, only ____ used as anticonvulstants require the federal law prohibits cautionary warning label, and not all anti convulstant medications need to be taken with a full glass of water. suspension, bezodiazepines
Aricept is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for use in treating the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
The route of administration for Imitrex are: orally, nasally and subcutaneous injection.
Immune modulators such as interferon must be kept refrigerated and protected from light.
Valium is a Schedule IV controlled substance (C-IV) medication.
PD (Parkinson's Disease) is a progressive disorder of the basal ganglia and is associated with the loss or deficiency of the neurotransmitter(NT) dopamine.
Nardil is a Monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)
The primary NTs of SNS are norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Four main types of receptors respond to these NTs. Alpha-1(a1) -receptors, a2- receptors, beta-1 receptors, and beta-2 receptors.
____are located in peripheral blood vessels, the heart and eyes; ___are primarily located on smooth muscle ;___ are primarily located in the heart muscle; and___ are located in the respiratory system, blood vessels, and elsewhere in the body. Alpha-1(a1) -receptors, a2- receptors, beta-1 receptors, and beta-2 receptors.
Anticholinergic medications cause dry mouth, constipation , urinary retention, blurred vision, and confusion.
Phychosis is defined as a mental illness characterized by the loss of contact with reality and may be a true mental illness, attributable to an underlying medical condition ( e.g., dementia, drug withdrawal syndromes), or induced by substances (meds, drugs or poisons)
Treatment for bipolar disorder primarily involves the use of mood-stabilizing drugs such as lithium (Eskalith).
Antipsychotic medications may cause extrapyramidal symptoms, dizziness, and drowsiness.
Insomnia is a complaint of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, or waking up too early; its prevalence increases with age and is more common in women than men. Insomnia can be related to medication use.
Three insomnia medications are restoril (temazepam), Ambien (zolpidem), Lunesta (eszopidone)
_______ is an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant Prozac (fluoxetine)
Although all of the other medications listed are schedule II controlled substances (C-II) ____ is the only nonstimulant ADHD medication sold in the united states. Strattera
Methylphenidate preparations come in tablets, chewable tablets, oral solutions, and transdermal patches, as well as capsules.
The dendrites are extensions that receive electrical impulses from the previous neuron's nerve terminal.
When the cell is in a resting state, an overall negative charge occurs inside the neuron that consists of potassium ions (positive) and chloride ions (negative). The outside of the neuron is more positive, with sodium as the positive charge. At this point, the cell is polarized and waiting to be excited.
when a neurotransmitter activates the cell membrane, an influx of positive sodium ions occurs, changing the negative charge inside the cell to a positive charge .
The neurotransmitter activation is called depolarization
The cell restores the resting state by allowing the inside positive charges(potassium ions) to escape.
As the transition back to the resting state occurs, the cell actively transports the sodium back to the outside and allows the potassium to reenter the cell.
The brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord and consists of three main areas: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and is part of the CNS.
Two types of cholinergic agents that activate the PNS are those that mimic acetycholine and those that stop the destruction of acetylcholine by the enzyme acetycholinesterase.
because these drugs mimic the PSNS, they are referred to as parasympathomimetic agents.
Myasthenia gravis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the transmission of electrical impulses from the CNS to muscles throughout the body.
Anxiety disorders can be divided into several different types ranging from panic disorders such as PTSD and phobias to personality disorders such as OCD.
schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder involving chronic or episodic psychosis
All benzodiazepines are C-IV medications
Bipolar disorder is characterized by excessive mood swings that range from manic (high) to depressive (low) states.
The main ingredient in OTC products for insomnia are antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine.
A form of buproion (zyban) is used for smoking cessation; patients should not take the anti depressant Wellbutrin (also a form of bupropion) and Zyban together.
Created by: drea08