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Tera's Clinical

LP4 Review

electrocardiograms are taken during a physical examination. What special circumstances will the physician most likely want an ekg for? patients over 40, with a family history of cardiac disease, and those who have experienced chest pain
what is a ECG/EKG? a graphic presentation of the heart's electrical activity.
What does a ECG/EKG measure? the amount of the electrical activity produced by the heart and the time necessary for the electrical impulses to travel through the heart during each treatment
reasons for an ECG/EKG? detect myocardial ischemia, estimate damage after heart attack, detect and evaluate cardiac arrhythmia, assess effects of cardiac medication on the heart, determine electrolyte imbalance
T or F: a ECG/EKG can always detect heart disease False
aspects of correct ECG/EKG procedures patient preparation, operation of the electrocardiograph, elimination of artifacts, mounting, labeling, and maintenance of the instrument
the heart has __ chambers 4
the heart's upper chambers are known as ___? atria
the heart's lower chambers are known as ___? ventricles
_______ blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior ____ ___. deoxygenated, vena cavae
after entering the right atrium, the blood then moves through the ____ _____. tricuspid valve
after passing through the tricuspid valve, the blood moves into the ____ _____. right ventricle
T or F: in a healthy heart, the blood between the right and left sides cannot mix together. True
after entering the right ventricle, the blood then travels to the lungs via the ____ ____. pulmonary arteries
deoxygenated blood gives off the carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen in the ______ bed of the lungs capillary
oxygenated blood is pumped through the pulmonary ___ into the ___ ____. vein, left atrium
after entering the left atrium, blood then travels through the ___ ____. mitral valve
after traveling through the mitral valve, blood then moves into the ___ ____. left ventricle
after the left ventricle, oxygenated blood is then passed through the ___ ____ into the ___ and then to all the cells, tissues, and organs of the body. aortic valve, aorta
on its external surface, the heart is surrounded by coronary ____ that supply the myocardium with its blood supply. arteries
what are the two kinds of cardiac cells? electrical cardiac cells, and myocardial cells
where are the electrical cardiac cells located? in distinct pathways around and through the heart.
what are electrical cardiac cell's pathways referred to as? the conduction system of the heart
the body's natural pacemaker is called ? the sinoatrial node (SA)
where is the sonatrial node located? the upper part of the right atrium
what is the sinoatrial node? a bundle of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are self-excitatory or pace-maker cells. It sends out an electrical impulse that begins and regulates the heartbeat
what does a healthy SA node "fire"at? 60-70 times a minute in a resting heart
when electrical impulses are sent along the pathways, the _____ cells contract. myocardial
the contraction of the cardiac cells is called _______. depolarization
the first chambers affected by the electrical discharge from the SA node are the ___. atria
from the atria, the electrical impulses travel along the conduction system toward the ____. ventricles
after reaching the ventricles, the electrical impulses travel to the _________ ____. atrioventricular node (AV)
where is the atrioventricular node located? at the base of the right atrium
if there is a suppression of the SA node, the AV node can fire intrinsically at the rate of __ to __ times per minute 40-60
after reaching the atrioventricular node, the electrical impulses are transmitted to the ____ __ ___. bundle of His
the bundle of His divides into right and left bundle branches that continue the electrical impulses on to the _____ ____. purkinje fibers
what do the purkinje fibers do? disperse the electrical impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract.
if there is a interruption in the electrical signals from the SA or the AV node, the purkinje fibers can fire at __ to __ times per minute 15-40
the heart recovers electrically (_____) and then relaxes briefly ( ____), and then a new cycle begins. repolarization, polarization
the cycle that involves electrical impulses in the heart that represents one heartbeat cardiac cycle
contraction systole
relaxation diastole
electrical impulses are recorded on special ECG paper or displayed on an ________. oscilloscope
what does MI stand for? myocardial infarction/heart attack
the ____ divides into the left and right bundle branch fibers bundle of His
blood that has been circulated through the body and returned to the right atrium is ____ blood. deoxygenated
contraction of the ventricles is reflected in the _____ on an ECG. QRS complex
the ______ detect the electrical impulses on the body surface sensors
limb electrodes that record simultaneously are called ______ leads bipolar
leads placed on the chest wall are known as ____ leads precordial
______ lead is placed at the fourth intercostal space at the right margin of the sternum. V1
muscle tremor is a type of artifact that is also known as _____ somatic
an ECG that reflects a normal tracing in all parameters demonstrates a rhythm called: normal sinus rhythm
______ blood enters the right side of the heart deoxygenated
the entire route of the electrical impulses through the heart is referred to as the _____ ____ cardiac cycle
_____ refers to the height of the ECG tracing. amplitude
using an AED to restore a regular heart rhythm is called ______. defibrilation
the ______ is a machine used to perform the ECG procedure. electrocardiograph
the _____ line is another name for the baseline on an ECG tracing. isoelectic
the word for the lowest amount of pressure on the vessel during a blood pressure reading is _____. diastole
Ultrasonography and ______ are noninvasive diagnostic procedures commonly used in the clinical setting. electrocardiography
the study of the coronary arteries using a radiopaque medium is called a ______ ________. cardiac catheterization
a _____ ______ is utilized to record heart rate and rhythm for a 24hr period. Holter monitor
list five reasons why an electrocardiograph might be performed. 1-detect myocardial ischemia 2-estimate damage from heart attack 3-detect cardiac arrhythmia 4-assess cardiac meds 5-detect electrolyte imbalance
Lead I records electrical activity between the ____ and the ____. right arm, left arm
Lead II records electrical activity between the _____ and the ____. right arm, left leg
Lead III records electrical activity between the _____ and the _______. left arm, left leg
Lead I, lead II, lead III are ____ leads bipolar
aVr, aVL and aVf are ____ leads unipolar
the aVr records electrical activity from the _____ arm added to the ____ and the ______. left arm, left leg, right arm
the aVL records electrical activity from the ____ added to the ____ and the ___. right arm, left leg, left arm
the aVf records electrical activity from the ____ added to the____ and the ____. right arm, left arm, left leg
the _____ leads are designated aVr, aVL, and aVf augmented
V1 is placed where on the chest? 4th intercostal space to the right of the sternum
V2 is placed where on the chest? 4th intercostal space to the left of the sternum
V3 is placed where on the chest? midway between V2 and V4
V4 is placed where on the chest? 5th intercostal space on the left midclavicular line
V5 is placed where on the chest? horizontal to V4 at left anterior axillary line
V6 is placed where on the chest? horizontal to V4 at left of midaxillary line
a broken patient cable or lead wire has become detached from an electrode, what type of artifact is it considered? Interrupted baseline
If the patient sings to himself during the procedure, what type of artifact is it? somatic tremor
If the patient uses body lotion what artifact could this cause? wandering baseline
the lead wires are crossed and do not follow the patient's body contour. what type of artifact could this cause? alternating current
repolarization takes place while the heart muscle ___? relaxes
chest leads are also called ____ leads precordial
augmented leads are also called: unipolar
one millivolt of cardiac electrical activity will deflect the stylus exactly: 10mm high
list some things that could cause a wandering baseline: lotions, creams, oils
symptoms of syncope, fatigue, chest pain, and vertigo may indicate what condition? cardiac arrhythmia
a surgical procedure that takes a portion of a vein and grafts it to a coronary artery is called what? bypass
interference with the ECG tracing from other electrical sources is called? AC interference (alternating current)
a life threatening arrhythmia in which the ventricles contract wildly is? premature ventricular contractions,ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia
a continuous record of cardiac activity is provided by: Holter monitor
Tips to improve heart health -avoid tobacco, -eat a low fat,low cholesterol, low sodium diet, -keep weight under control, -try to reduce stress, -get enough rest, -take all meds as prescribed, -tell your doctor about anything unusual.
name four abnormalities that can be diagnosed using an ECG: cardiac arrhythmias, ischemia, heart attack, enlarged heart, electrolyte imbalance
which limb lead is "grounded"? the right leg
what is an exercise tolerance test? a noninvasive ECG tracing taken under controlled conditions while the patient is closely monitored to help determine the patient's diagnosis. Vitals are taken during the procedure.
what conditions would cancel a exercise tolerance test? pain, shortness of breath, excess fatigue
What patient care is given after an exercise tolerance test is performed? patient needs to rest, refrain from taking a hot bath or shower, avoid stimulants and extreme temperature changes for several hours
oxygenated blood returns from the lungs and flows from the pulmonary veins into the ___ ____. left atrium
tachycardia is defined as a heart rate greater than ____bpm 100
a 12-lead ECG is called such because: it produces 12 views of the electroconduction of the heart.
voltage is changed into mechanical motion by the _____ in the ECG machine galvanometer
because the skin is a poor conductor of electricity, an ____ substance is applied with each electrode electrolyte
augmented limb leads are: aVr, aVL, aVf
treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias can be delivered using a _____ to deliver countershocks defibrillator
a device that is surgically implanted to provide a regular, steady heartbeat is a: pacemaker
a ____ stress test is one in which the patient exercises on a treadmill after injection of a radioactive substance thallium
This line is present when there is no current flowing in the heart baseline or isoelectric
waves shown on a EKG are either deflecting upward, known as _____ ______ or downward, known as ______ ______. positive deflection, negative deflection
the ___ wave is initiated when the SA node fires and represents atrial polarization P
the P wave is recorded as a _____ deflection positive
the __ __ __ _____ is initiated when the AV node fires and represents ventricular depolarization QRS complex
the QRS complex is measured from the beginning of the __ ____ to the end of the ___ ____. first wave, last wave
the __ wave represents ventricular repolarization and is a positive deflection. T
T or F: the recovery of the atria is so slight that it is lost behind the QRS complex. True
each cardiac cycle takes about ___ seconds 0.8
squares on the ECG graph paper are _mm by _mm 5,5
to calculate a heart rate, you should count the 5mm boxes between two __ waves, then divide this number into ____. R, 300
an electrocardiograph that can simultaneously record several different leads is known as a ______ electrocardiograph multichannel
the most common multichannel machine used in the provider's clinic is the ____ channel machine three
the ______ electrocardiograph has a built in computer program that interprets the ECG tracing while it is being recorded, allowing for faster diagnosis and treatment. interpretive
because skin is a poor conductor, ____ are used in the forms of gels, lotions, pastes, presaturated pads or within adhesive sensors electrolytes
Created by: Jennifer Sawvell Jennifer Sawvell