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MedTerm 13

Medical Terminology for Health Professions Chapter 13 words activity

Acromegaly A rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of the extremities caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty.
Addison’s disease Occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone.
Adrenalitis Inflammation of the adrenal glands.
Aldosteronism An abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone.
antidiuretic hormone Maintains the water balance within the body by promoting the reabsorption of water through the kidneys.
Calcitonin A hormone secreted by the thyroid glands, works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues.
Conn’s syndrome A disorder of the adrenal glands that is caused by the excessive production of aldosterone.
Cortisol A corticosteroid that has an anti-inflammatory action. It also regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body; also known as hydrocortisone.
Cretinism A congenital form of hypothyroidism.
Cushing’s syndrome Caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol.
diabetes insipidus A condition caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond to the antidiuretic hormone.
diabetes mellitus A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
diabetic retinopathy Occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina.
Electrolytes Mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium that are normally found in the blood.
Epinephrine Stimulates the sympathetic nervous system; also known as adrenaline.
Estrogen A hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Exophthalmos An abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit.
follicle-stimulating hormone Stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of eggs in the female; in the male, it stimulates the production of sperm.
fructosamine test Measures average glucose levels over the past three weeks.
gestational diabetes mellitus A form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies.
Gigantism Abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty.
Glucagon A hormone that increases the amount of glucose by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose for release into the bloodstream.
Glucose The basic form of energy used by the body; also known as blood sugar.
Graves’ disease A disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone.
growth hormone Regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues.
Gynecomastia The condition of excessive mammary development in the male.
Hashimoto’s disease An autoimmune disease in which the body’s own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland.
Hypercalcemia Characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones and teeth.
Hyperglycemia An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood.
Hyperinsulinism The condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream.
Hyperpituitarism The excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism.
Hyperthyroidism The overproduction of thyroid hormones, which causes an imbalance of the metabolism.
Hypoglycemia An abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood.
Hypothyroidism Caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion.
Insulin The hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream.
Insulinoma A benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin.
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone Stimulates ovulation in the female; in the male, it stimulates the secretion of testosterone.
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy A minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands.
Leptin A protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite.
luteinizing hormone Stimulates ovulation in the female; in the male, the luteinizing hormone stimulates the secretion of testosterone.
Myxedema Caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion.
Norepinephrine Both a hormone and a neurohormone.
Oxytocin Stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and the flow of milk from the mammary glands.
Pancreatitis An inflammation of the pancreas.
Parathyroidectomy The surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
pituitary adenoma A benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes excess hormone secretion.
Polydipsia Excessive thirst.
Polyphagia Excessive hunger.
Polyuria Excessive urination.
Prediabetes Is a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes.
Progesterone The hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary.
Prolactinoma A benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much of the lactogenic hormone.
Puberty The process of physical changes by which a child’s body becomes an adult’s body that is capable of reproducing.
radioactive iodine treatment The oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells.
Steroids A large family of hormone-like substances that share the same fat-soluble chemical structure.
Testosterone A steroid hormone secreted by the testicles and the adrenal cortex to stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics.
Thymectomy The surgical removal of the thymus gland.
Thymitis An inflammation of the thymus gland.
Thymosin The hormone secreted by the thymus that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system.
Thyroxine One of the two primary thyroid hormones, influences the rate of metabolism.
Created by: jillcyr